Python Cheat Sheet

Safalta Expert Published by: Saksham Chauhan Updated Wed, 21 Sep 2022 02:44 AM IST


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One of the most widely used programming languages nowadays is Python. The Zen of Python, which comprises the guiding principles for creating computer programmes in Python, summarises the underlying philosophy of the language. This Python cheat sheet may be used as a fast reference for all of your Python inquiries if you are just starting out in your software development career. Click Here To Download  e-book for MS Excel blog

Different Python Operators

The variables and values may be operated on using Python operators. Python's primary operators are:

Operators of assignments
Variables are given values through assignment operators.
Operator Example Same As


x = 5

x = 5


x += 3

x = x + 3


x -= 3

x = x - 3


x *= 3

x = x * 3


x /= 3

x = x / 3


x %= 3

x = x % 3


x //= 3

x = x // 3


x **= 3

x = x ** 3


x &= 3

x = x & 3


x |= 3

x = x | 3


x ^= 3

x = x ^ 3


x >>= 3

x = x >> 3


x <<= 3

x = x << 3

Calculus Operators

Common mathematical operations are carried out using arithmetic operators.
Operator Name Example



x + y



x - y



x * y



x / y



x % y



x ** y


Floor division

x // y

Operators for Comparison

To compare two values, comparison operators are utilised.

Operator Name Example



x == y


Not equal

x != y


Greater than

x > y


Less than

x < y


Greater than or equal to

x >= y


Less than or equal to

x <= y

Intelligent Operators

Conditional statements are combined using logical operators.

Operator Description Example


Returns True if both statements are true

x < 5 and  x < 10


Returns True if one of the statements is true

x < 5 or x < 4


Reverse the result and if it is true, it returns False.

not(x < 5 and x < 10)

Membership Operators

A sequence's presentation in an object is checked using membership operators.

Operator Description Example


Returns True if a sequence with the specified value is present in the object

x in y

not in

Returns True if a sequence with the specified value is not present in the object

x not in y


Operators in bits

Binary number comparisons are performed using bitwise operations.
Operator Name Description


Sets each bit to 1 if both bits are 1



Sets each bit to 1 if one of two bits is 1



Sets each bit to 1 if only one of two bits is 1


Inverts all the bits


Zero fill left shift

Shift left by pushing zeros in from the right and let the leftmost bits fall off


Signed right shift

Shift right by pushing copies of the leftmost bit in from the left, and let the rightmost bits fall off

Data Types 

Every value is referred to as an object in Python, and each object has a unique data type. In Python, strings, floating-point numbers, and integers are the three most popular data types.

Integer (int)

An item, such as "number 5", is represented as an integer.

Example: -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3

Number in Floating-Point (float)

Float is the standard symbol for floating-point numbers.

Example: -1.25, -1.0, – 0.5, 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.25


It is possible to alter a string of characters. Take the word "hello" as an example. Also keep in mind that Python supports immutable strings. This implies that once you define one, you cannot subsequently edit it.

Example: ‘hello’, ‘bye’, hi’, ‘goodbye’
Lists, dictionaries, and tuples are additional frequent Python data types.


Data is temporarily stored in the computer's memory via variables.


price = 100 

rating = 4.7 

course_name = ‘Python for Beginners’ 

published = True 

Price is a whole number without any decimal points in the example above, rating is a floating-point number with a decimal point, course name is a string with a list of characters, and published is a boolean.

Python only recognises True and False as boolean values.


Python functions are used to divide the code into manageable pieces.

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These sections are simpler to read and keep up with. Additionally, locating flaws in a tiny section of the software is simpler than doing so for the complete thing. These pieces can also be utilised again.


def greet_user(name): 

print(f”Hi {name}”) 


Data passing across functions is done through parameters.

Values provided are considered arguments.

Positional arguments (where the position matters) and keyword arguments (where the location doesn't matter) are the two categories of values.

Example of a Positional Argument:
greet_user(“John”, “Smith”) 

Keyword Argument Example: 
calculate_total(order=30, shipping=8, tax=0.1) 

Values may be returned by functions. If the return statement is not used, None is always returned. None stands for the lack of a value.


def square(number): 

return number * number 

result = square(2) 


The above function will print 4 as a result.

Flow Control 

Comparison Operators

Depending on the values you provide, comparison operators compare two values and determine whether they are True or False.
Operator Meaning


Equal to


Not equal to


Less than


Greater Than


Less than or Equal to


Greater than or Equal to


Boolean Evaluation

Never use the == or!= operators to evaluate a boolean operation in Python.

Use implicit boolean evaluation using the "is" or "is not" operators.

Boolean Operators

Python supports the and, or, and not Boolean operators.

The Truth Table of the "or" operator:

Expression Value

True or True


True or False


False or True


False or False


The “or not” operator’s Truth Table:
Expression Evaluates to

not True


not False


The “and” operator’s Truth Table:
Expression Value

True and True


True and False


False and True


False and False


If-Else Propositions

The true and false components of a given condition are both executed using the if-else expression. The "if" piece of code is run only if the condition is satisfied. The "else" block code is carried out if the condition is false. If the preceding condition is not true, the elif keyword instructs your programme to attempt a different condition.

Loops in Python

For loops and while loops are two useful loop statements in Python.

For Loop

The for loop is used to iterate over a sequence such as a list, string, tuple, etc. 

During Loop
While the condition is true, you may run a series of statements using the while loop.

Break and carry on

Even if the condition is true, the loops can be changed using the break and continue commands. It is applicable to both for and while loops.

Range and Loop Functions
You may use the range() method to repeatedly loop through a block of code. It returns a series of numbers that begins at zero by default, increases by one, and terminates at a given value.


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