What is Calcium Chloride (CaCl2)?

Safalta Expert Published by: Gaurav Bawa Updated Tue, 13 Sep 2022 01:05 AM IST

Highlights

CaCl2 is an ionic substance having the chemical formula CaCl2. Calcium chloride anhydrous is another name for calcium dichloride.



CaCl2 is an ionic substance having the chemical formula CaCl2. Calcium chloride anhydrous is another name for calcium dichloride.

It is a chlorine and calcium ionic combination. It is a crystalline solid white at ambient temperature. Because it is very soluble in water, it is hygroscopic. It has no odour and a very high enthalpy change of solution. This substance is commonly utilised in dust control and deicing. It is cooked in the following manner:
  • Calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid are combined in a reaction.
  • It is extracted directly from limestone, but a significant quantity is also created as a byproduct of the Solvay process.

Calcium chloride was found in the 15th century, although it did not attract much attention or research until the late 18th century. All of the early work was done using laboratory-prepared samples since soda ash was not generated on a commercial scale until the ammonia-soda process was in operation.

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It was initially thought to be a waste product until its applications were identified.


 

Calcium Chloride - CaCl2 Properties

CaCl2 Calcium Chloride
Molecular Weight/ Molar Mass 110.98 g/mol
Density Anhydrous: 2.15 g/cm3
Boiling Point 1,935 °C
Melting Point 772 °C


 

Structure of Calcium Chloride (CaCl2 Structure)

The solitary calcium cation and the two chloride anions form two ionic connections in calcium chloride molecules. The following diagram depicts the structure of calcium chloride molecules. The calcium cation has a charge of magnitude +2 while each chloride anion has a charge of magnitude -1. As a result, the chemical is electrically neutral.


 

Calcium Chloride Preparation

To make calcium chloride, follow the methods outlined below:

Step 1:

Take out a beaker. Wear gloves and fill the beaker with limestones until it is a fourth of the way full.

Step 2:

To the limestones, add about 1/4 of a beaker of HCl (hydrochloric acid).

Step 3:

As the HCl dissolves the limestone, bubbles form. Gently stir the contents of the beaker to ensure that the reaction completes. If all of the limestones have fully dissolved in it, add a bit more.

Step 4:

Filter the solids out of the solution by pouring it through the filter paper as soon as it stops bubbling.

Step 5:

The calcium chloride solution in the second beaker should be heated. After the water evaporates, the solid calcium chloride remains.

 

Solution of Calcium Chloride

Because calcium chloride is highly soluble in water, it is used to create solutions with relatively high densities. Densities as high as 1430kg/m3 have been achieved at 208oC and 1570kg/m3 at 808oC. When completing or reworking wells, the oil and gas drilling industries frequently take advantage of these high densities. The molal concentration, c, of calcium chloride in water can also be calculated using density or specific gravity.
The densities of calcium chloride solution at various concentrations and temperatures have been determined. Densities and apparent molar volumes of aqueous calcium chloride solutions have also been reported at temperatures ranging from 323K to 600K and pressures up to 40MPa. In terms of engineering design and application of calcium chloride solutions to flow through porous media, viscosity is an important property. There are data and equations available for estimating the viscosity of calcium chloride solutions at temperatures ranging from 20 to 508oC.
In the 1980s, numerous studies on the thermodynamics of calcium chloride solutions were published. Many of these were aimed at validating and expanding the Pitzer equations for determining activity coefficients and other parameters in high ionic strength electrolyte solutions. Calcium chloride is commercially produced through a variety of processes, including the refining of natural brines, the reaction of calcium hydroxide with ammonium chloride in the production of Solvay soda ash, and the reaction of hydrochloric acid with calcium carbonate.

Some substances have the ability to absorb moisture from the air when exposed to it. This property is shared by anhydrous calcium chloride, which is widely used as a drying agent.

CaCl2 (Calcium Chloride) Uses
  • It is used in deicing because it prevents ice formation.
  • Used in the manufacturing of activated charcoal.
  • It is used to sterilise male animals.
  • Heating pads and self-heating cans contain it.
  • It is used to correct mineral deficiencies in beer.
  • Calcium chloride is an electrolyte found in sports drinks.
  • The drying tubes in laboratories are typically packed with calcium chloride.



Health Risks

Because this chemical is irritating, it must be handled with gloves.
It is reasonably safe to handle, but when consumed, it interacts exothermically with water and can induce tongue or esophageal burning.

Calcium chloride is also used to treat hyperkalemia, hypermagnesemia, and calcium-channel blocker overdose.


 

Is calcium chloride a naturally occurring substance?

Natural calcium chloride contains trace amounts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride, which are carried from the brine's natural source. Almost all food-grade calcium chloride uses are covered by this.

Is calcium an electrical conductor?

Calcium is more difficult to cut than lead, although it can be done with some effort. Although calcium is a lesser electrical conductor than copper or aluminium by weight, it is a better mass conductor than both due to its extremely low density.

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