What is the Full Form of DNA and its related information?

Safalta expert Published by: Saumya Sahoo Updated Fri, 09 Sep 2022 02:21 AM IST

Full Form of DNA 

DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is the genetic material of humans and most other organisms. Almost all cells withinside the human frame have identical DNA. Most of the DNA is present in the nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount is also present in the mitochondria (called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert energy from food into a form that the cell can use. Information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical radicals: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Human DNA is made up of about 3 billion bases and more than 99% of these bases are common to all people. The order or sequence of these bases determines the information that can be used to build and maintain an organism. This is much like how the letters of the alphabet appear in a particular order to form words and sentences.

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DNA bases are paired with A and T, C and G to form units called base pairs. Each base is also bound to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule. Bases, sugars, and phosphates together are called nucleotides. Nucleotides are organized in lengthy strands that shape a helix referred to as a double helix. The structure of the double helix resembles a ladder, with base pairs forming the steps of the ladder and sugar and phosphate molecules forming the vertical sides of the ladder. An important property of DNA is its ability to replicate or copy itself. Each DNA strand of the double helix acts as a template for replicating the base sequence. This is very important when cells are dividing.  If you are preparing for competitive exams and are looking for expert guidance, you can check out our General Knowledge Ebook Free PDF: Download Here

Functions of DNA

  1. DNA is known as the storage unit of genetic information that plays an important role in storing all biological information of an organism.
  2. DNA is responsible for transmitting traits from parents to offspring.
  3. DNA is involved in cell proliferation and protein production.
  4. DNA is the structural unit of the chromosome.
  5. DNA acts as the unit of communication, providing cells with information and instructions for their proper functioning.

Applications of DNA

DNA is the storage unit of genetic information that is integral to all living things. It consists of several features that are useful for modern technology. DNA is one of the key building blocks of all organisms and viruses, directing their development, growth, function, and trait identity. The basic structure of DNA is a double helix containing hydrogen-bonded nitrogenous bases encapsulated in a sugar-phosphate backbone. Nitrogenous bases are divided into two groups: pyrimidines, which contain cytosines and thymines, and purines, which contain adenines and guanines. DNA plays an important role in technology and development. DNA profiling, bioinformatics, DNA nanotechnology, genetic engineering, anthropology, etc.
Some applications of DNA in science are-
Genetic Engineering: Genetic engineering is the study of recombination or replication of DNA structures to form new DNA sequences called recombinant DNA. Genetic engineering is used not only in the field of medical research but also in the production of recombinant proteins and agricultural products.
 

What is the Full Form of DNA?

DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is the genetic material of humans and most other organisms. Almost all cells withinside the human frame have identical DNA. Most of the DNA is present in the nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount is also present in the mitochondria (called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert energy from food into a form that the cell can use. Information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical radicals: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Human DNA is made up of about 3 billion bases and more than 99% of these bases are common to all people. The order or sequence of these bases determines the information that can be used to build and maintain an organism. This is much like how the letters of the alphabet appear in a particular order to form words and sentences. DNA bases are paired with A and T, C and G to form units called base pairs. Each base is also bound to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule. Bases, sugars, and phosphates together are called nucleotides. Nucleotides are organized in lengthy strands that shape a helix referred to as a double helix. The structure of the double helix resembles a ladder, with base pairs forming the steps of the ladder and sugar and phosphate molecules forming the vertical sides of the ladder. An important property of DNA is its ability to replicate or copy itself. Each DNA strand of the double helix acts as a template for replicating the base sequence. This is very important when cells are dividing.  

What are the applications of DNA?

DNA is the storage unit of genetic information that is integral to all living things. It consists of several features that are useful for modern technology. DNA is one of the key building blocks of all organisms and viruses, directing their development, growth, function, and trait identity. The basic structure of DNA is a double helix containing hydrogen-bonded nitrogenous bases encapsulated in a sugar-phosphate backbone. Nitrogenous bases are divided into two groups: pyrimidines, which contain cytosines and thymines, and purines, which contain adenines and guanines. DNA plays an important role in technology and development. DNA profiling, bioinformatics, DNA nanotechnology, genetic engineering, anthropology, etc.
Some applications of DNA in science are-
Genetic Engineering: Genetic engineering is the study of recombination or replication of DNA structures to form new DNA sequences called recombinant DNA. Genetic engineering is used not only in the field of medical research but also in the production of recombinant proteins and agricultural products.
Phylogeny: DNA plays an important role in the field of the phylogeny. A DNA structure is a storage unit of genetic information that can be used to collect historical information related to a particular organism.
Bioinformatics: Bioinformatics is the branch of science that studies protein phylogeny and function. Two aligned DNA sequences are identified for each homologous sequence present to determine mutations. Bioinformatics also applies to data mining, machine learning, database theory, string search algorithms, and more.
Profiling: Forensic scientists primarily use DNA profiling to identify an individual. DNA profiling compares a person's blood, skin, saliva, hair, etc. to determine their identity.

 

Where are the function of DNA?

  1. DNA is known as the storage unit of genetic information that plays an important role in storing all biological information of an organism.
  2. DNA is responsible for transmitting traits from parents to offspring.
  3. DNA is involved in cell proliferation and protein production.
  4. DNA is the structural unit of the chromosome.
  5. DNA acts as the unit of communication, providing cells with information and instructions for their proper functioning.

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