NCERT class 8th Science Chapter - 5 Coal and petroleum

Updated Thu, 26 May 2022 04:27 PM IST

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Coal and petroleum are the resources given to us by nature, it is very useful for us and it is the raw material of all our industries our entire economy is indirectly dependent on coal and petroleum.

 
Natural Resources- Those resources which we get from nature are called natural resources. There are mainly two types of natural resources.
 
Topic details
Types of resources
Coal
Story of coal
Coal product
Petroleum
Story of petroleum
Refining
Natural gas

1. Renewable Natural Resources – This natural resource is in unlimited quantity and will never end. Example:- Sunlight, Air.
 
2. None renewable Natural Resources – These natural resources will be exhausted due to continuous use.

Source: Amar ujala

Example:- Coal, Petroleum, Mineral salts, Natural gas.
 

Coal

 
Coal is hard like stone and black king. In the early days, railway locomotives were run from it. Coal is also used to generate electricity.
 

The story of coal

 
Millions of years ago today, a meteorite fell on the earth, and all the animals and plants were destroyed. With time, he kept getting buried. Due to the high pressure, all the trees and plants got converted into coal. The process of transformation of plants into coal is called carbonization.
 

Coal products

 
When the coal is heated, a lot of things come out of it.
• Coke- It is a hard black coloured substance. It is an almost pure form of carbon. Co is used to make steel.
• Bitumen - This is a thick liquid. It is used for road construction.
 • Coal gas- We get coal to gas while making coke in the processing of coal. It is used as fuel.
 

Petroleum –
 

The substance used in vehicles is fuel in modern times. We get it from petroleum. Petroleum is a thick liquid. While extracting petroleum, we get natural gas from it. Which are found above petroleum inside the ground.
 

Story of Petroleum

 
About 300 million years ago today, a meteorite falling on the earth killed all the flora and fauna of the earth. The animals that died were buried under the ground with time. Because of the high pressure and high temperature, those animals turned to petroleum.
 

Refining of petroleum

 
Petroleum is a dark coloured oily liquid. It gives us a lot of things. For example, diesel, petrol, wax, petroleum gas, lubricants etc. The process of separating petrol from all substances is called refining.
Natural Gas – Natural gas is an important fossil fuel. It is used in vehicles. Natural gas is pressed under high pressure. After this, it is used in vehicles. Which we know as CNG Compressed Natural Gas.
 
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Q1-what is the petroleum and coal?

Answer- You know that coal and petroleum are fossil fuels. It required the dead organisms millions of years to get converted into these fuels. On the other hand, the known reserves of these will last only a few hundred years. Moreover, burning of these fuels is a major cause of air pollution.

Q2-what is the importance of petroleum and coal?

Answer- Coal is used as a fuel as such in homes and in industry, or it is used to generate electricity at Thermal Power Plants. Petroleum products such as petrol and diesel are used as fuels in transport to run scooters, motorcycles, cars, buses, trucks, trains, ships and aeroplanes.

Q3-what is coal made of?

Answer-the Coal is a sedimentary deposit composed predominantly of carbon that is readily combustible. Coal is black or brownish-black, and has a composition that (including inherent moisture) consists of more than 50 percent by weight and more than 70 percent by volume of carbonaceous material.

Q4-why coal and petroleum called fossils fuel?

Answer -Over millions of years, heat and pressure from Earth's crust decomposed these organisms into one of the three main kinds of fuel: oil (also called petroleum), natural gas, or coal. These fuels are called fossil fuels, since they are formed from the remains of dead animals and plants

Q5-why is petroleum called black gold?

Answer-This is because when crude oil is extracted from the land it is black in color. This resource is compared to gold due to its valuable properties and worth too. Its many components have a lot of commercial value.

Q6-which is known as liquid gold?

Answer- The correct option is C Petroleum. Petroleum is often referred to as liquid gold due to its importance as a fuel to transport to run vehicles.

Q7-which is known as Black diamond?

Answer- Coal is said to be a black diamond because it is used for a variety of purposes. It is used as fuel in the kitchen and as a raw material in industries. Coal is also used in the generation of electricity.

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