NCERT Books Class 12 Microeconomics Chapter 1- Introduction

Safalta Expert Published by: Noor Fatima Updated Mon, 18 Jul 2022 04:45 PM IST

Highlights

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NCERT Books Class 12 Microeconomics Chapter 1- Introduction is accessible here for download purposes. You can download the PDF for and learn from the book anytime you want.

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You may read NCERT Book for Class 12 Microeconomics Chapter 1 Introduction here. You may find links to Class 12 Microeconomics Notes, NCERT Solutions, Important Questions, Practice Papers, and more after each chapter.

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Table of Content
Topics covered
Starting of the Chapter
Glimpses of the Chapter
PDF Link
 

The Chapter ' Introduction' explains the following-

  • 1.1 A SIMPLE ECONOMY
  • 1.2 CENTRAL PROBLEMS OF AN ECONOMY
  • 1.3 ORGANISATION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
  • 1.4 POSITIVE AND NORMATIVE ECONOMICS
  • 1.5 MICROECONOMICS AND MACROECONOMICS
  • 1.6 PLAN OF THE BOOK
 

Introduction Goes Like This-


1.1 A SIMPLE ECONOMY

Think of any society. People in the society need many goods and services1 in their everyday life including food, clothing, shelter, transport facilities like roads and railways, postal services and various other services like that of teachers and doctors. In fact, the list of goods and services that any individual2 needs is so large that no individual in society, to begin with, has all the things she needs. Every individual has some amount of only a few of the goods and services that she would like to use. A family farm may own a plot of land, some grains, farming implements, maybe a pair of bullocks and also the labour services of the family members. A weaver may have some yarn, some cotton and other instruments required for weaving cloth. The teacher in the local school has the skills required to impart education to th students. Some others in society may not have any resource3 excepting their own labour services. Each of these decision making units can produce some goods or services by using the resources that it has and use part of the produce to obtain the many other goods and services which it needs. For example, the family farm can produce corn, use part of the produce for consumption purposes and procure clothing, housing and various services in exchange for the rest of the produce.

Similarly, the weaver can get the goods and services that she wants in exchange for the cloth she produces in her yarn. The teacher can earn some money by teaching students in the school and use the money for obtaining the goods and services that she wants. The labourer also can try to fulfill her needs by using whatever money she can earn by working for someone else. Each individual can thus use her resources to fulfill her needs. It goes without saying that no individual has unlimited resources compared to her needs. The amount of corn that the family farm can produce is limited by the amount of resources it has, and hence, the amount of different goods and services that it can procure in exchange of corn is also limited. As a result, the family is forced to make a choice between the different goods and services that are available. It can have more of a good or service only by giving up some amounts of other goods or services. For example, if the family wants to have a bigger house, it may have to give up the idea of having a few more acres of arable land. If it wants more and better education for the children, it may have to give up some of the luxuries of life. The same is the case with all other individuals in society. Everyone faces scarcity of resources, and therefore, has to use the limited resources in the best possible way to fulfill her needs.

In general, every individual in society is engaged in the production of some goods or services and she wants a combination of many goods and services not all of which are produced by her. Needless to say that there has to be some compatibility between what people in society collectively want to have and what they produce.

For example, the total amount of corn produced by family farm along with other farming units in a society must match the total amount of corn that people in the society collectively want to consume. If people in the society do not want as much corn as the farming units are capable of producing collectively, a part of the resources of these units could have been used in the production of some other good or services which is in high demand. On the other hand, if people in the society want more corn compared to what the farming units are producing collectively, the resources used in the production of some other goods and services may be reallocated to the production of corn. Similar is the case with all other goods or services. Just as the resources of an individual are scarce, the resources of the society are also scarce in comparison to what the people in the society might collectively want to have. The scarce resources of the society have to be allocated properly in the production of different goods and services in keeping with the likes and dislikes of the people of the society.

Any allocation of resources of the society would result in the production of a particular combination of different goods and services. The goods and services thus produced will have to be distributed among the individuals of the society. The allocation of the limited resources and the distribution of the final mix of goods and services are two of the basic economic problems faced by the society.

In reality, any economy is much more complex compared to the society discussed above. In the light of what we have learnt about the society, let us now discuss the fundamental concerns of the discipline of economics some of which we shall study throughout this book.


1.2 CENTRAL PROBLEMS OF AN ECONOMY

Production, exchange and consumption of goods and services are among the basic economic activities of life. In the course of these basic economic activities, every society has to face scarcity of resources and it is the scarcity of resources that gives rise to the problem of choice. The scarce resources of an economy have competing usages. In other words, every society has to decide on how to use its scarce resources. The problems of an economy are very often summarised as follows:

What is produced and in what quantities?

Every society must decide on how much of each of the many possible goods and nservices it will produce. Whether to produce more of food, clothing, housing or to have more of luxury goods. Whether to have more agricultural goods or to have industrial products and services. Whether to use more resources in education and health or to use more resources in building military services. Whether to have more of basic education or more of higher education. Whether to have more of consumption goods or to have investment goods (like machine) which will boost production and consumption tomorrow. 

How are these goods produced?

Every society has to decide on how much of which of the resources to use in the production of each of the different goods and services. Whether to use more labour or more machines. Which of the available technologies to adopt in the production of each of the goods?

For whom are these goods produced?

Who gets how much of the goods that are produced in the economy? How should the produce of the economy be distributed among the individuals in the economy? Who gets more and who gets less? Whether or not to ensure a minimum amount of consumption for everyone in the economy. Whether or not elementary education and basic health services should be available freely for everyone in the economy. Thus, every economy faces the problem of allocating the scarce resources to the production of different possible goods and services and of distributing the produced goods and services among the individuals within the economy. The allocation of scarce resources and the distribution of the final goods and services are the central problems of any economy. 
 

Some Glimpses of the Chapter are-

 






Scroll down to get the PDF download link.

Download the NCERT Book for Microeconomics, Class 12 in PDF.

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NCERT Book for Class 12 Microeconomics Chapter 1 Introduction- PDF Download

Microeconomics Chapter 1- Introduction

Where can you download ‘Introduction' PDF?

Candidates can download NCERT Books Class 12 Microeconomics Chapter 1- Introduction PDF for free on our page. Links are given below.

Microeconomics Chapter 1- Introduction

What topics are covered in ‘Introduction’ Chapter?

  • 1.1 A SIMPLE ECONOMY
  • 1.2 CENTRAL PROBLEMS OF AN ECONOMY
  • 1.3 ORGANISATION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
  • 1.4 POSITIVE AND NORMATIVE ECONOMICS
  • 1.5 MICROECONOMICS AND MACROECONOMICS
  • 1.6 PLAN OF THE BOOK

Is NCERT enough for Microeconomics Class 12?

Yes, these are. The book can also assist in dispelling uncertainties. Studying from the NCERT Book for Class 12 Microeconomics also has the following advantages:
  • The NCERT Books Class 12 Microeconomics provides students with in-depth knowledge of Economics.
  • The course books include illustrations that might aid students in comprehending the chapters.
  • These books can aid learners in independent study

Are the CBSE Books for Class 12 Microeconomics significant for board exams?

For higher courses and board exams, the chapters in the CBSE Books for Class 12 Microeconomics are essential. For Class 12 Microeconomics , students should read the chapter provided in the CBSE books. These examples and drill questions can help you get high marks.
 
We offer practice test questions to assist you sharpen your exam preparations and earn top grades. E-books can also be downloaded if you want to prepare even more thoroughly.

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