NCERT Class 12 Books Biology Chapter 1- Reproduction in organisms

Safalta Expert Published by: Noor Fatima Updated Wed, 29 Jun 2022 11:53 PM IST

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NCERT Class 12 Books Biology Chapter 1- Reproduction in organisms is accessible here for download purposes. You can download the PDF for and learn from the book anytime you want. Students who are studying in Class 12 and candidates who are preparing for competitive exams can download the PDF for NCERT Class 12 Books Biology Chapter 1- Reproduction in organisms to learn from the reading material.  

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REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISMS

Each and every organism can live only for a certain period of time. The period from birth to the natural death of an organism represents its life span. Life spans of a few organisms are given in Figure 1.1. Several other organisms are drawn for which you should find out their life spans and write in the spaces provided. Examine the life spans of organisms represented in the Figure 1.1. Isn’t it both interesting and intriguing to note that it may be as short as a few days or as long as a few thousand years? Between these two extremes are the life spans of most other living organisms. You may note that life spans of organisms are not necessarily correlated with their sizes; the sizes of crows and parrots are not very different yet their life spans show a wide difference. Similarly, a mango tree has a much shorter life span as compared to a peepal tree. Whatever be the life span, death of every individual organism is a certainty, i.e., no individual is immortal, except single-celled organisms. Why do we say there is no natural death in single-celled organisms? Given this reality, have you ever wondered how vast number of plant and animal species have existed on earth for several thousands of years? There must be some processes in living organisms that ensure this continuity. Yes, we are talking about reproduction, something that we take for granted. 
Reproduction is defined as a biological process in which an organism gives rise to young ones (offspring) similar to itself. The offspring grow, mature and in turn produce new offspring. Thus, there is a cycle of birth, growth and death. Reproduction enables the continuity of the species, generation after generation. You will study later in Chapter 5 (Principles of Inheritance and Variation) how genetic variation is created and inherited during reproduction.

There is a large diversity in the biological world and each organism has evolved its own mechanism to multiply and produce offspring. The organism’s habitat, its internal physiology and several other factors are collectively responsible for how it reproduces. Based on whether there is participation of one organism or two in the process of reproduction, it is of two types. When offspring is produced by a single parent with or without the involvement of gamete formation, the reproduction is asexual. When two parents (opposite sex) participate in the reproductive process and also involve fusion of male and female gametes, it is called sexual reproduction.


1.1 ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

In this method, a single individual (parent) is capable of producing offspring. As a result, the offspring that are produced are not only identical to one another but are also exact copies of their parent. Are these offspring likely to be genetically identical or different? The term clone is used to describe such morphologically and genetically similar individuals.

Let us see how widespread asexual reproduction is, among different groups of organisms. Asexual reproduction is common among single-celled organisms, and in plants and animals with relatively simple organisations. In Protists and Monerans, the organism or the parent cell divides by mitosis into two to give rise to new individuals (Figure1.2). Thus, in these organisms cell division is itself a mode of reproduction.
Many single-celled organisms reproduce by binary fission, where a cell divides into two halves and each rapidly grows into an adult (e.g., Amoeba, Paramecium). In yeast, the division is unequal and small buds are produced that remain attached initially to the parent cell which, eventually gets separated and mature into new yeast organisms (cells). Under unfavourable condition the Amoeba withdraws its pseudopodia and secretes a three-layered hard covering or cyst around itself. This phenomenon is termed as encystation. When favourable conditions return, the encysted Amoeba divides by multiple fission and produces many minute amoeba or pseudopodiospores; the cyst wall bursts out, and the spores are liberated in the surrounding medium to grow up into many amoebae. This phenomenon is known as sporulation.
 
Members of the Kingdom Fungi and simple plants such as algae reproduce through special asexual reproductive structures (Figure 1.3). The most common of these structures are zoospores that usually are microscopic motile structures. Other common asexual reproductive structures are conidia (Penicillium), buds (Hydra) and gemmules (sponge).

You have learnt about vegetative reproduction in plants in Class XI. What do you think – Is vegetative reproduction also a type of asexual reproduction? Why do you say so? Is the term clone applicable to the offspring formed by vegetative reproduction?

While in animals and other simple organisms the term asexual is used unambiguously, in plants, the term vegetative reproduction is frequently used. In plants, the units of vegetative propagation such as runner, rhizome, sucker, tuber, offset, bulb are all capable of giving rise to new offspring (Figure1.4). These structures are called vegetative propagules.

Obviously, since the formation of these structures does not involve two parents, the process involved is asexual. In some organisms, if the body breaks into distinct pieces (fragments) each fragment grows into an adult capable of producing offspring (e.g., Hydra). This is also a mode of asexual reproduction called fragmentation.

You must have heard about the scourge of the water bodies or about the ‘terror of Bengal’. This is nothing but the aquatic plant ‘water hyacinth’ which is one of the most invasive weeds found growing wherever there is standing water. It drains oxygen from the water, which leads to death of fishes. You will learn more about it in Chapters 13 and 14. You may find it interesting to know that this plant was introduced in India because of its beautiful flowers and shape of leaves. Since it can propagate vegetatively at a phenomenal rate and spread all over the water body in a short period of time, it is very difficult to get rid off them.

Are you aware how plants like potato, sugarcane, banana, ginger, dahlia are cultivated? Have you seen small plants emerging from the buds (called eyes) of the potato tuber, from the rhizomes of banana and ginger? When you carefully try to determine the site of origin of the new plantlets in the plants listed above, you will notice that they invariably arise from the nodes present in the modified stems of these plants. When the nodes come in contact with damp soil or water, they produce roots and new plants. Similarly, adventitious buds arise from the notches present at margins of leaves of Bryophyllum. This ability is fully exploited by gardeners and farmers for commercial propagation of such plants.

It is interesting to note that asexual reproduction is the common method of reproduction in organisms that have a relatively simple organisation, like algae and fungi and that they shift to sexual method of reproduction just before the onset of adverse conditions. Find out how sexual reproduction enables these organisms to survive during unfavourable conditions? Why is sexual reproduction favoured under such conditions? Asexual (vegetative) as well as sexual modes of reproduction are exhibited by the higher plants. On the other hand, only sexual mode of reproduction is present in most of the animals. 

You can download the complete book from the link given below.
 
NCERT Class 12 Books Biology Chapter 1- Reproduction in organisms- PDF Download

Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms

अध्याय 1: जीवों में जनन

Where can you download NCERT Class 12 Books Biology Chapter 1 PDF?

Candidates can download NCERT Class 12 Books Biology Chapter 1- Reproduction in organisms PDF for free on our page. Links are given below.

Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms

अध्याय 1: जीवों में जनन

Why is NCERT Books Class 12 Biology the best study material?

The book can also help in clarifying doubts. Other benefits of studying from the NCERT Books Class 12 Biology are-
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Why is NCERT Books Class 12 Biology so recommended for board exams?

Almost all the questions that appear in board exams are from NCERT Books Class 12 Science. Moreover, a team of professional teachers drafts these books, which become a reliable source of study for students.
 

Are CBSE Books for Class 12 Biology important from an examination perspective?

The Chapter 1 in CBSE Books for Class 12 Biology are vital for board exams and higher classes. Students should read the Unit given in the CBSE books for Class 12 Science. These stories and practice questions can help gain excellent marks.

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