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Here, you can learn the NCERT Class 12 Books Chemistry Unit 7- The p-Block Elements. Moreover, you can get the links for other chapters to download the links.
The Chapter Goes Like This-
ObjectivesAfter studying this Unit, you will be able to-
- Appreciate general trends in the chemistry of elements of groups 15,16,17 and 18
- Learn the preparation, properties and uses of dinitrogen and phosphorus and some of their important compounds
- Describe the preparation, properties and uses of dioxygen and ozone and chemistry of some simple oxides
- Know allotropic forms of sulphur, chemistry of its important compounds and the structures of its oxoacids
- Describe the preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid
- Know the chemistry of interhalogens and structures of oxoacids of halogens;
- Enumerate the uses of noble gases
- Appreciate the importance of these elements and their compounds in our day to day life
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Having learnt the chemistry of elements of Groups 13 and 14 of the p-block of periodic table in Class XI, you will learn the chemistry of the elements of subsequent groups in this Unit.
Group 15 includes nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth and moscovium.
As we go down the group, there is a shift from nonmetallic to metallic through metalloidic character.
Nitrogen and phosphorus are non-metals, arsenic and antimony metalloids, bismuth and moscovium are typical metals.
Group 15 Elements
Molecular nitrogen comprises 78% by volume of the atmosphere. In the earth’s crust, it occurs as sodium nitrate, NaNO3 (called Chile saltpetre) and potassium nitrate (Indian saltpetre). It is found in the form of proteins in plants and animals. Phosphorus occurs in minerals of the apatite family, Ca9(PO4)6. CaX2 (X = F, Cl or OH) (e.g., fluorapatite Ca9 (PO4)6. CaF2) which are the main components of phosphate rocks. Phosphorus is an essential constituent of animal and plant matter. It is present in bones as well as in living cells. Phosphoproteins are present in milk and eggs. Arsenic, antimony and bismuth are found mainly as sulphide minerals. Moscovium is a synthetic radioactive element. Its symbol is Mc, atomic number 115, atomic mass 289 and electronic configuration [Rn] 5f
146d107s27p3. Due to very short half life and availability in very little amount, its chemistry is yet to be established.
Here, except for moscovium, important atomic and physical properties of other elements of this group along with their electronic configurations are given in Table 7.1.
Trends of some of the atomic, physical and chemical properties of the group are discussed below.
The valence shell electronic configuration of these elements is ns2np3. The s orbital in these elements is completely filled and p orbitals are half-filled, making their electronic configuration extra stable.
Atomic and Ionic Radii
Covalent and ionic (in a particular state) radii increase in size down the group. There is a considerable increase in covalent radius from N to P. However, from As to Bi only a small increase in covalent radius is observed. This is due to the presence of completely filled d and/or f orbitals in heavier members.
Ionisation enthalpy decreases down the group due to gradual increase in atomic size. Because of the extra stable half-filled p orbitals electronic configuration and smaller size, the ionisation enthalpy of the group 15 elements is much greater than that of group 14 elements in the corresponding periods. The order of successive ionisation enthalpies, as expected is DiH1 < DiH2 < DiH3 (Table 7.1).
The electronegativity value, in general, decreases down the group with increasing atomic size. However, amongst the heavier elements, the difference is not that much pronounced.
All the elements of this group are polyatomic. Dinitrogen is a diatomic gas while all others are solids. Metallic character increases down the group. Nitrogen and phosphorus are non-metals, arsenic and antimony metalloids and bismuth is a metal. This is due to decrease in ionisation enthalpy and increase in atomic size. The boiling points, in general, increase from top to bottom in the group but the melting point increases upto arsenic and then decreases upto bismuth. Except nitrogen, all the elements show allotropy.
Oxidation states and trends in chemical reactivity
The common oxidation states of these elements are –3, +3 and +5. The tendency to exhibit –3 oxidation state decreases down the group due to increase in size and metallic character. In fact last member of the group, bismuth hardly forms any compound in –3 oxidation state. The stability of +5 oxidation state decreases down the group. The only well characterised Bi (V) compound is BiF5. The stability of +5 oxidation state decreases and that of +3 state increases (due to inert pair effect) down the group. Besides +5 oxidation state, nitrogen exhibits + 1, + 2, + 4 oxidation states also when it reacts with oxygen. However, it does not form compounds in +5 oxidation state with halogens as nitrogen does not have d-orbitals to accommodate electrons from other elements to form bonds. Phosphorus also shows +1 and +4 oxidation states in some oxoacids.
In the case of nitrogen, all oxidation states from +1 to +4 tend to disproportionate in acid solution. For example, 3HNO2 ® HNO3 + H2O + 2NO
Similarly, in case of phosphorus nearly all intermediate oxidation states disproportionate into +5 and –3 both in alkali and acid. However +3 oxidation state in case of arsenic, antimony and bismuth becomes increasingly stable with respect to disproportionation.
Nitrogen is restricted to a maximum covalency of 4 since only four (one s and three p) orbitals are available for bonding. The heavier elements have vacant d orbitals in the outermost shell which can be used for bonding (covalency) and hence, expand their covalence as in PF– 6.
Anomalous properties of nitrogen
Nitrogen differs from the rest of the members of this group due to its small size, high electronegativity, high ionisation enthalpy and non-availability of d orbitals. Nitrogen has unique ability to form pp -pp multiple bonds with itself and with other elements having small size and high electronegativity (e.g., C, O). Heavier elements of this group do not form pp -pp bonds as their atomic orbitals are so large and diffuse that they cannot have effective overlapping. Thus, nitrogen exists as a diatomic molecule with a triple bond (one s and two p) between the two atoms. Consequently, its bond enthalpy (941.4 kJ mol–1) is very high. On the contrary, phosphorus, arsenic and antimony form single bonds as P–P, As–As and Sb–Sb while bismuth forms metallic bonds in elemental state. However, the single N–N bond is weaker than the single P–P bond because of high interelectronic repulsion of the non-bonding electrons, owing to the small bond length. As a result the catenation tendency is weaker in nitrogen. Another factor which affects the chemistry of nitrogen is the absence of d orbitals in its valence shell. Besides restricting its covalency to four, nitrogen cannot form dp –pp bond as the heavier elements can e.g., R3P = O or R3P = CH2 (R = alkyl group). Phosphorus and arsenic can form dp –dp bond also with transition metals when their compounds like P(C2H5)3 and As(C6H5)3 act as ligands.
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NCERT Class 12 Books Chemistry Unit 7- The p-Block Elements- PDF Download
Unit 7: The p-Block Elements
अध्याय 7: p- ब्लॉक के तत्व
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