Full Form of SONAR

Safalta expert Published by: Saumya Sahoo Updated Sat, 17 Sep 2022 01:50 AM IST

Full Form of SONAR 

Sonar (sound navigation and ranging) uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in subsea navigation) for navigation, measurement of distance (ranging), communication, or detection of objects above or below water. Two types of technology share the name "sonar". Passive sonar essentially hears the sound of the ship. Active sonar emits a pulse of sound and listens for echoes. Sonar can be used to acoustically locate and measure the echo properties of "targets" in water. Before the introduction of radar, airborne acoustic positioning was used. Sonar can also be used for robotic navigation, and SODAR (Upward Facing Airborne Sonar) is used for atmospheric surveys. The term sonar is also used for the equipment used to produce and receive sound.

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The acoustic frequencies used in sonar systems range from very low (infrasonic) to very high (ultrasound). The study of underwater noise is known as hydroacoustics. Check here Free Current Affairs Magazine DOWNLOAD NOW  

Brief history

Although a few animals (dolphins, bats, a few shrews, and others) have used sound for verbal exchange and item detection for hundreds of thousands of years, the user via way of means of people withinside the water is to start with recorded via way of means of Leonardo da Vinci in 1490: a tube inserted into the water changed into stated for use to locate vessels via way of means of putting an ear to the tube. In the overdue nineteenth century, an underwater bell changed into used as an ancillary to lighthouses or lightships to offer caution of hazards. The use of sound to "echo-locate" underwater withinside the identical manner as bats use sound for aerial navigation appears to be precipitated via way of means of the Titanic catastrophe of 1912. The world`s first patent for an underwater echo-ranging tool changed into filed on the British Patent Office via way of means of English meteorologist Lewis Fry Richardson a month after the sinking of the Titanic, and German physicist Alexander Behm received a patent for an echo sounder in 1913. The Canadian engineer Reginald Fessenden, even as running for the Submarine Signal Company in Boston, Massachusetts, constructed an experimental machine starting in 1912, a machine later examined in Boston Harbor, and ultimately in 1914 from the U.S. Revenue Cutter Miami at the Grand Banks off Newfoundland. In that test, Fessenden validated intensity sounding, underwater communications (Morse code), and echo ranging (detecting an iceberg at a 2-mile (three.2 km) range). The "Fessenden oscillator", operated at approximately 500 Hz frequency, changed into not able to decide the bearing of the iceberg because of the three-meter wavelength and the small size of the transducer's radiating face (much less than 1⁄three wavelength in diameter). The ten Montreal-constructed British H-magnificence submarines released in 1915 have been prepared with Fessenden oscillators. During World War I the want to locate submarines precipitated extra studies into the usage of sound. The British made early use of underwater listening gadgets known as hydrophones, even as the French physicist Paul Langevin, running with a Russian immigrant electric engineer Constantin Chilowsky, labored on the improvement of lively sound gadgets for detecting submarines in 1915. In addition, you can also check out our free General Awareness E-book- Download now for all competitive exams. 

Types of SONAR

  • Active: active sonar is the same technology as ultrasound, with a transmitter and receiver. The transmitter emits high-frequency sound waves to aim at the target, which receives the abbreviation SONAR. Two species of marine life use this technique to help them find food in the water. For example, whales, dolphins, etc.
  • Passive: passive sonar the full form of Passive SONAR has only one receiver. This type of her SONAR finds sound sources emanating from objects. The receiver only considers underwater plexuses and cannot generate plexuses. This technology supports underwater scientific missions.

What is the Full Form of SONAR?

Sonar stands for sound navigation and ranging. 

Briefly describe about SONAR.

Sonar (sound navigation and ranging) uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in subsea navigation) for navigation, measurement of distance (ranging), communication, or detection of objects above or below water. Two types of technology share the name "sonar". Passive sonar essentially hears the sound of the ship. Active sonar emits a pulse of sound and listens for echoes. Sonar can be used to acoustically locate and measure the echo properties of "targets" in water. Before the introduction of radar, airborne acoustic positioning was used. Sonar can also be used for robotic navigation, and SODAR (Upward Facing Airborne Sonar) is used for atmospheric surveys. The term sonar is also used for the equipment used to produce and receive sound. The acoustic frequencies used in sonar systems range from very low (infrasonic) to very high (ultrasound). The study of underwater noise is known as hydroacoustics.

Describe briefly the history of SONAR.

Although a few animals (dolphins, bats, a few shrews, and others) have used sound for verbal exchange and item detection for hundreds of thousands of years, the user via way of means of people withinside the water is to start with recorded via way of means of Leonardo da Vinci in 1490: a tube inserted into the water changed into stated for use to locate vessels via way of means of putting an ear to the tube. In the overdue nineteenth century, an underwater bell changed into used as an ancillary to lighthouses or lightships to offer caution of hazards. The use of sound to "echo-locate" underwater withinside the identical manner as bats use sound for aerial navigation appears to be precipitated via way of means of the Titanic catastrophe of 1912. The world`s first patent for an underwater echo-ranging tool changed into filed on the British Patent Office via way of means of English meteorologist Lewis Fry Richardson a month after the sinking of the Titanic, and German physicist Alexander Behm received a patent for an echo sounder in 1913. The Canadian engineer Reginald Fessenden, even as running for the Submarine Signal Company in Boston, Massachusetts, constructed an experimental machine starting in 1912, a machine later examined in Boston Harbor, and ultimately in 1914 from the U.S. Revenue Cutter Miami at the Grand Banks off Newfoundland. In that test, Fessenden validated intensity sounding, underwater communications (Morse code), and echo ranging (detecting an iceberg at a 2-mile (three.2 km) range). The "Fessenden oscillator", operated at approximately 500 Hz frequency, changed into not able to decide the bearing of the iceberg because of the three-meter wavelength and the small size of the transducer's radiating face (much less than 1⁄three wavelength in diameter). The ten Montreal-constructed British H-magnificence submarines released in 1915 have been prepared with Fessenden oscillators. During World War I the want to locate submarines precipitated extra studies into the usage of sound. The British made early use of underwater listening gadgets known as hydrophones, even as the French physicist Paul Langevin, running with a Russian immigrant electric engineer Constantin Chilowsky, labored on the improvement of lively sound gadgets for detecting submarines in 1915.

What are the types of SONAR?

  • Active: active sonar is the same technology as ultrasound, with a transmitter and receiver. The transmitter emits high-frequency sound waves to aim at the target, which receives the abbreviation SONAR. Two species of marine life use this technique to help them find food in the water. For example, whales, dolphins, etc.
  • Passive: passive sonar the full form of Passive SONAR has only one receiver. This type of her SONAR finds sound sources emanating from objects. The receiver only considers underwater plexuses and cannot generate plexuses. This technology supports underwater scientific missions.

What are the applications of SONAR?

It is used to find a school of fish (fisher’s group). Useful for detecting submarines (warships). It is used for scientific applications such as water velocity control, wave measurement, and biomass estimation. Used for navigational purposes and reef monitoring.

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