**integers**are the collection of whole numbers and negative numbers. Similar to whole numbers, integers also do not include the fractional part. Thus, we can say, that

**integers**are numbers that can be positive, negative, or zero, but cannot be a fraction. We can perform all the arithmetic operations, like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, on integers. The examples of integers are, 1, 2, 5,8, -9, -12, etc.

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The symbol of integers is “**Z**“. Now, let us discuss the definition of integers, symbols, types, operations on integers, rules, and properties associated with integers, with many solved examples in detail. Join Safalta School Online and prepare for Board Exams under the guidance of our expert faculty. Our online school aims to help students prepare for Board Exams by ensuring that students have conceptual clarity in all the subjects and can score their maximum in the exams.

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**Table of Contents:**

**Types of Integers**

**Zero**

**Negative Integers**

How to Represent Integers on Number Line?

Rules defined for integers are

Arithmetic Operations on Integers

How to Represent Integers on Number Line?

Rules defined for integers are

Arithmetic Operations on Integers

**Addition of Integers**

**Subtraction of Integers**

**Multiplication of Integers**

**Division of Integers**

**Properties of Integers**

**Closure Property**

Applications of Integers

Applications of Integers

**What are Integers?**

The word integer originated from the Latin word “Integer” which means whole or intact.
Integers are a special set of numbers comprising zero, positive numbers, and negative numbers.

**Examples of Integers:** – 1, -12, 6, 15.

**Symbol**

The integers are represented by the symbol ‘**Z’. **

Z= {……-8,-7,-6, -5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,……}

**Types of Integers**

Integers come in three types:

- Zero (0)
- Positive Integers (Natural numbers)
- Negative Integers (Additive inverse of Natural Numbers)

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Zero**

Zero is neither a positive nor a negative integer. It is a neutral number i.e. zero has no sign (+ or -).

**Positive Integers**

The positive integers are natural numbers also called counting numbers. These integers are also sometimes denoted by Z+. The positive integers lie on the right side of 0 on a number line.

Z+ → 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30,…. |

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**Negative Integers**

The negative integers are the negative of natural numbers.
They are denoted by Z–.
The negative integers lie on the left side of 0 on a number line.

Z– → -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9, -10, -11, -12, -13, -14, -15, -16, -17, -18, -19, -20, -21, -22, -23, -24, -25, -26, -27, -28, -29, -30,….. |

**How to Represent Integers on Number Line?**

As we have already discussed the three categories of integers, we can easily represent them on a number line based on positive integers, negative integers, and zero. Zero is the center of integers on a number line. Positive integers lie on the right side of zero and negative integers lie on the left.

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**Rules of Integers**

**Rules defined for integers are:**

- The sum of two positive integers is an integer
- The sum of two negative integers is an integer
- The product of two positive integers is an integer
- The product of two negative integers is an integer
- Sum of an integer and its inverse is equal to zero
- Product of an integer and its reciprocal is equal to 1

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**Arithmetic Operations on Integers**

The basic Maths operations performed on integers are:

- Addition of integers
- Subtraction of integers
- Multiplication of integers
- Division of integers

**Addition of Integers**

While adding the two integers with the same sign, add the absolute values, and write down the sum with the sign provided with the numbers.

For example, (+4) + (+7) = +11; (-6) + (-4) = -10

While adding two integers with different signs, subtract the absolute values, and write down the difference with the sign of the number that has the largest absolute value.

For example, (-4) + (+2) = -2; (+6) + (-4) = +2.

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**Subtraction of Integers**

While subtracting two integers, change the sign of the second number that is being subtracted, and follow the rules of addition.

For example, (-7) – (+4) = (-7) + (-4) = -11; (+8) – (+3) = (+8) + (-3) = +5

**Multiplication of Integers**

While multiplying two integer numbers, the rule is simple.

- If both the integers have the same sign, then the result is positive.
- If the integers have different signs, then the result is negative.

For example,

- (+2) x (+3) = +6
- (+3) x (-4) = – 12

Thus, we can summarise the multiplication of two integers with examples in the below table.

Multiplication of Signs | Resulting Sign | Examples |

+ × + | + | 3 × 4 = 12 |

+ × – | – | 3 × -4 = -12 |

– × + | – | -3 × 4 = -12 |

– × – | + | -3 × -4 = 12 |

**Division of Integers**

The rule for dividing integers is similar to multiplication.

- If both the integers have the same sign, then the result is positive.
- If the integers have different signs, then the result is negative.

Similarly

- (+6) ÷ (+2) = +3
- (-16) ÷ (+4) = -4

Division of Signs | Resulting sign | Examples |

+ ÷ + | + | 15 ÷ 3 = 5 |

+ ÷ – | – | 15 ÷ -3 = -5 |

– ÷ + | – | -15 ÷ 3 = -5 |

– ÷ – | + | -15 ÷ -3 = 5 |

The major Properties of Integers are:

- Closure Property
- Associative Property
- Commutative Property
- Distributive Property
- Additive Inverse Property
- Multiplicative Inverse Property
- Identity Property

**Closure Property**

According to the closure property of integers, when two integers are added or multiplied together, it results in an integer only. If a and b are integers, then:

- a + b = integer
- a x b = integer

**Examples:**

- 2 + 5 = 7 (is an integer)
- 2 x 5 = 10 (is an integer)

## Applications of Integers

Integers are not just numbers on paper; they have many real-life applications. The effect of positive and negative numbers in the real world is different. They are mainly used to symbolize two contradicting situations.

For example, when the temperature is above zero, positive numbers are used to denote temperature, whereas negative numbers indicate the temperature below zero. They help one to compare and measure two things like how big or small or more or fewer things are and hence can quantify things.

Some real-life situations where integers come into play are players’ scores in golf, football, and hockey tournaments, the rating of movies or songs, and in banks credits and debits are represented as positive and negative amounts respectively.

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## Examples on Integers

**Example 1:**

Solve the following:

- 5 + 3 = ?
- 5 + (-3) = ?
- (-5) + (-3) = ?
- (-5) x (-3) = ?

**Solution:**

- 5 + 3 = 8
- 5 + (-3) = 5 – 3 = 2
- (-5) + (-3) = -5 – 3 = -8
- (-5) x (-3) = 15

**Example 2:**

Solve the following product of integers:

- (+5) × (+10)
- (12) × (5)
- (- 5) × (7)
- 5 × (-4)

**Solution:**

- (+5) × (+10) = +50
- (12) × (5) = 60
- (- 5) × (7) = -35
- 5 × (-4) = -20

**Example 3:**

Solve the following division of integers:

- (-9) ÷ (-3)
- (-18) ÷ (3)
- (4000) ÷ (- 100)

**Solution:**

- (-9) ÷ (-3) = 3
- (-18) ÷ (3) = -6
- (4000) ÷ (- 100) = -40

## What are integers?

## What is an integer formula?

## What are the examples of integers?

## Can integers be negative?

## What are the types of integers?

Zero, Positive integers and Negative integers