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British Administration In India over a span of 200 years of colonial history went through a number of changes and amendments.
The epitome of power and authority in British Set up was concentrated in the office of the Viceroy.
Governor-General of India (1833-58): The Charter Act of 1833 changed the title "Governor-General of Bengal" back to "Governor-General of India." William Bentinck was the first Governor-General of India.
This position mostly served administrative needs and reported to the East India Company's Court of Directors.
Following the uprising in 1857, company rule was ended, and India came under the direct administration of the British throne.
The Government of India Act of 1858, which replaced Governor General of India's title with Viceroy (1858–1947), modified the title of the position.
The British government appointed the Viceroy immediately and Lord Canning served as India's first viceroy.
The viceroys had a distinct and often decisive impact on the Policies of the British Goverenment.
As the face of the British Government, the Viceroy acted as the link between the British Queen and India.
The Act Of Good Governance Of 1858 designated Goverenor- General of India as Viceroys.
The act enhanced the prestige if not the power of the Governor-General as Viceroy. In this space, we have covered the List Of Viceroys of India beginning with Lord Canning, the List Of Viceroys is essential for all sorts of examinations.
The viceroys and the policies are important for all the examinations. If you are preparing for competitive exams and are looking for expert guidance, you can check out our monthly FREE Current Affairs Ebook- Download Now
The viceroy title was dropped after India and Pakistan gained their independence in 1947, and although governors still served as King George VI's ambassadors, India and Pakistan were led by their own native governor-general.
As governor-general, Louis Mountbatten, Earl Mountbatten of Burma, oversaw the handover of British India to its new independent government.
After independence, Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (1878–1972) was the only and last Indian governor-general.
List Of Viceroys
- Revolt of 1857
- Establishment of three universities at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay in 1857
- Abolition of East India Company and transfer of control to the Crown by the Government of India Act, 1858
- Indian Councils Act of 1861
- Abolished doctrine of lapse
||1862 – 1863
||1864 – 1869
- Establishment of High court in Calcutta, Madras during his reign.
- Anglo-Bhutanese war
- He was known as the Savior of Punjab
||1869 – 1872
- Financial Distribution between centre and state introduced for the first time
- First Census in 1872
- established Rajkot College in Kathiawar
- Mayo College for the royal elite was set up
- Lord Mayo was the only Governor-General who was killed in India.
He was killed by Sher Ali Afridi in Port Blair
- Establishment of Statistical Survey of India
||1872 – 1876
- Civil Marriage and Arya Samaj marriage introduced
- Universal Marriage Act introduced in 1872
- Intercaste Marriage allowed
- Kuka Movement in Punjab
||1876 – 1880
- Vernacular Press Act, 1878
- Arms Act, 1878
- Nationalist view – Due to High rate of taxation purchasing power had reduced.
- Government view – Drought is natural phenomena due to which people became poor
- Ignored severe famine and organized durbar.
Proclaimed Queen Victoria “The Empress of India”
- Abolished tax on cotton for British traders
- Maximum age to take up civil services exam lowered from 21 to 19
||1880 – 1884
- Was the most loved Governor-General
- Repealed the controversial Arms and Vernacular press act
- Set up Local self-governments – Panchayats and Municipal Boards due to which he was known as Father of Self Government
- 2 new universities opened – Punjab University 1884, Allahabad University 1887
- Illbert Bill – Indian judge cannot try English Judge
- Appointment of Hunter Commission
||1884 – 1888
- III Anglo-‐Burmese war (1885-‐1886)
- Indian National Congress was founded in 1885
||1888 – 1894
- Indian Councils Act, 1892 (Indirect election was introduced for the first time)
- 2nd Factory Act, 1891
- appointed Durand Commission
|Lord Elgin II
||1894 – 1899
- First British Officer called Rands was killed.
- He was killed by Chapekar (Ramkrishna & Damodar) Brothers.
This was the first political murder.
||1899 – 1905
- Indian Universities act – to control Indian Universities
- Raleigh Commission
- Partition of Bengal
- Curzon-Kitchener controversy
- established Archeological Survey of India
|Lord Minto II
||1905 – 1910
|Lord Hardinge II
||1910 – 1916
- Mesopotamian Campaign
- Partition of Bengal cancelled
- Transfer of Capital from Calcutta to Delhi
- Hindu Mahasabha was established by Madan Mohan Malaviya
- Gandhi ji returned to India
- Home Rule moment launched by Annie Beasant
||1916 – 1921
- Home Rule League Movements
- Rowlatt Act was passed
- Jallianwala Bagh Massacre 1919
- August Declaration of 1917
- Non- Cooperation and Khilafat movement
- Montague – Chelmsford reform was passed
||1921 – 1926
- Swaraj Party was formed
- Chauri – Chaura incident took place
||1926 – 1931
- Launch of civil disobedience movement and Dandi march
- First round table conference was held
||1931 – 1936
- Second & Third Round Table Conference
- Poona pact was signed
- Communal award was started
||1936 – 1944
- Cripps Mission
- Quit India movement
||1944 – 1947
- CR Formula 1944
- Launch of Direct Action day
- Wavell Plan & Shimla conference
- June 3rd Plan
- Last Viceroy and First Governor-General of free India
The office of Governor-General of Presidency of Fort William or Governor-General of Bengal, to be selected by the Court of Directors of the East India Company, was established by the Regulating Act of 1773.
During the period of 1773–1784, the Court of Directors appointed a Council of Four (located in India) to advise the Governor–General, and the council's judgement was final.
The position was given the new title of Governor-General of India by the Saint Helena Act of 1833 (also known as the Government of India Act of 1833) First appointed as Governor-General of India in 1833, Lord William Bentinck.
The Crown's representative governor-general was referred to as the viceroy after the Government of India Act of 1858 was passed.
Although it was most frequently used in everyday speech, the title "Viceroy" had no legal standing and was never adopted by Parliament.
List Of Viceroys - FAQ
Who was the first Viceroy of India?
The first viceroy of India was Lord Canning.
Who was the last British Viceroy of India?
The last Viceroy of India was Lord Mountbatten.
Which act designated Governor-General as Viceroy?
The Act Of Good Governance 1958 designated Governor-General as Viceroy.
What is the immediate cause for the Act Of Good Governance 1958?
The Revolt Of 1957 or the First War Of Independence was the immediate cause for the Act Of Good Governance 1958.