OOPS Concepts in C++ : Check here !

Safalta expert Published by: Saksham Chauhan Updated Fri, 18 Nov 2022 11:09 PM IST


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A Class in C++ is the fundamental unit of Object-Oriented programming. It is a user-defined data type that may be utilised by creating an instance of the class in order to access and use its data members and member functions. A class functions as an object's blueprint. For instance: Think about the car class. There may be numerous automobiles with various names and brands, but they all have some characteristics, such as having four wheels, a speed limit, a mileage range, etc.

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In this case, a car is a class, and its features include its wheels, speed limitations, and mileage.A user-defined data type called a class has member functions and data members. The properties and behaviour of the objects in a Class are defined by the data members and member functions, which combined comprise the data variables and the functions used to modify these variables. The data member in the aforementioned example of the class Car will be the speed limit, mileage, etc., and member functions can apply brakes, increase speed, etc.In C++, a class can be described as a blueprint for a collection of objects that share certain characteristics and behaviours.

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What Do C++ OOPS Concepts Mean?

The method or paradigm known as object-oriented programming, or OOPs, involves structuring programs around objects rather than functions and logic.

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It helps to make the code flexible and modular by dividing the data into two memory locations, namely, data and functions. The major focus of object-oriented programming is on objects that need to be moved about. Data may be represented in OOPs as objects with properties and functionalities.

Why Is Object-Oriented Programming Necessary?

There were various restrictions and poor programming practices in older methods. Similar to procedural-oriented programming, the method was unable to effectively address real-world issues due to global data access issues and the inability to reuse code inside the application. It is simple to maintain the code in object-oriented programming thanks to classes and objects. Code reuse, or the ability to avoid writing the same code repeatedly, is made possible via inheritance, which adds to the program's simplicity. As well as providing data concealing, ideas like encapsulation and abstraction do so.

OOPs (Object Oriented Programming System)

An object is a tangible thing, like a pen, a chair, a table, etc. An approach or paradigm for creating programs using classes and objects is called "object-oriented programming." By offering some notions, it makes programme creation and maintenance easier:

1. Object
In other words, everything that physically exists in the world is referred to as an object. An object is defined as an entity with a state and behaviour. It may stand in for a canine, a person, a table, etc. The mix of data and programs that further represent an entity is an object.

2. Class
Class is a grouping of items. It makes sense as a whole.

3. Inheritance
When an object inherits all of its parent object's traits, this is referred to as inheritance. It allows for the reuse of code. To implement runtime polymorphism, it is employed.

4. Polymorphism
When the same task is carried out in many ways, this is referred to as polymorphism. For instance, to persuade the consumer otherwise, design a form, rectangle, etc. To implement polymorphism in C++, we employ function overloading and function overriding.

5. Abstraction
Abstraction is the practice of displaying functionality while concealing internal features. For instance, we are unaware of the internal processing for phone calls. To accomplish abstraction in C++, we employ abstract classes and interfaces.

6. Encapsulation 
Encapsulation is the process of combining data and functions into a single entity. To access these data members, set the scope of the member function to public and the scope of the data members to private. The data is made inaccessible to the outside world through encapsulation.

Advantages of OOPs over Procedure-oriented programming language

  1. In contrast to procedure-oriented programming languages, where it is difficult to maintain as code expands as project size rises, OOPs make development and maintenance easier.
  2. While procedure-oriented programming languages allow for global data access from everywhere, OOPs offer data hiding.
  3. OOPs, make it possible to more successfully imitate real-world events. If we use an object-oriented programming language, we may offer the answer to a real-world problem.



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