Formation of soil and types of soil found in India

Safalta expert Published by: Saumya Sahoo Updated Thu, 25 Aug 2022 03:09 PM IST

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Soil is the uppermost layer of the earth. It is one of the most important natural resources. It forms the basis of agriculture without which no plant can be grown. All the living beings directly or indirectly depend on soil. Our General Knowledge Ebook Free PDF: https://www.safalta.com/general-awareness-free-e-book

Table of Content

#Formation of Soil
#Types of Soil
#Alluvial Soil
#Black soil
#Red Soil
#Laterite soil
#Mountain Soil
#Desert Soil
 

Formation of Soil

Soil formation is a beautiful process it takes hundred to thousand of years for the formation of soil and the factors involved in the formation of soil are parent rocks, climate, vegetation, animals, and microscopic organisms.

Source: safalta

Parent rocks refer to the original rocks from which the soils are formed if the original rock is basalt the soil formed is black soil, if the original rock is an ancient crystalline metamorphic rock the soil formed is red soil, if the original rock is laterit the soil formed is lateritic soil now these rocks are subjected to weathering it means softening and breaking down of rocks now this happens due the influence of climate and every day due to the heat of the sun the temperature rises and the rocks expand and at night time the rocks contract now due to regular expansion and contraction of they break up into small sediments sometimes the rocks break down because they are in contact with water, lime and silica in the soil, which reacts with water and they are extracted out of the rocks. The rocks finally become weak and they break when the leaves from the tree complete their cycle they fall down when the dead remains of the plants and animals decompose and finally become one with the soil. These small pieces break down further to form tiny particles of soil. Wind, rain, and rivers carry the to different places.

Types of Soil

Alluvial Soil

This soil occupies 40% of the land area in India alluvial soil is formed by the depositional work of the rivers and that is why they are known as riverine soil and these soils are found in the river basins and the deltas. River basins refer to an area covered by the main river and its tributaries. Deltas refer to the triangular-shaped land between the distributor’s ease of different rivers. The color of alluvial soil can be grey, light brown, or yellowish. These soils are very rich in chemicals like potash, phosphoric acid, lime, and carbon compounds but at the same time, they are deficient in nitrogen and humus (dead remains of plants and animals which decompose ). Alluvial soil is rich in clay and if the clay content is more, the water retaining ability of the soil is also high, they are ideal for the growth of crops like sugarcane, paddy, wheat, and other cereal and plus crops. Due to its high fertility regions of alluvial soil are intensively cultivated and densely populated. The entire northern plains are made up of this soil and they are known as inland alluvial.

Black soil

This soil is formed by the weathering of basalt rocks this is the residual soil because it is formed at the place of its origin over the underlying rocks it is dark in color and it is suitable for cotton cultivation so it is also known as the regur soil or the black cotton soil. The regur soil is concentrated over the decan lower track which includes parts of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Telengana, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka we can find regur soil even in some parts of Rajasthan. This soil has a high proportion of lime, iron, magnesium, calcium carbonate, and potash and is deficient in nitrogen, organic matter, and phosphorus.
 
Red Soil

It is formed from ancient crystalline metamorphic rocks of the peninsular plateau under prolonged weathering by rainfall these rocks break up to form the soil. These soil differ from place to place. They are red in color as they contain a large number of iron oxides in several places their color slightly changes as they appear brown or grey it looks yellow
  when it occurs in hydrated form this soil is mainly found on the plateau regions of the peninsula India. Red soil covers the states of Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Alisa, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and the northeastern states.

Laterite soil

It gets its red color due to the presence of iron and aluminum. It is found in the western ghats, parts of Tamil Nadu, and scattered in other regions. It is good for crops like tea, coffee, spices, coconut, and rubber.

Mountain Soil

It is very rich in organic matter and humus. It is found in the Himalayan region and in the hilly areas of Assam, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand. It is good for raising fruit orchards. 

Desert Soil

It is primarily made up of sand particles and it is very poor in nitrogen and humus. It is found in the desert of Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Punjab. If irrigated properly, it can produce crops such as wheat, gram, cotton, jowar, etc.

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