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Table of Content
Determining Factors of personality
Biological Factors(1) Heredity : The elements that were predetermined at conception are referred to be hereditary.
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Source: Safalta.comPhysical appearance, temperament, level of energy, and biological rhythms are qualities that, collectively with one's biological, physiological, and inborn psychological make up, are typically impacted by one's parents. According to the heredity perspective, a person's personality is determined by the molecular structure of their chromosomal genes.
(2) Brain : The function of a person's brain has an impact on personality as another biological aspect. Despite some encouraging advances in research, psychologists are unable to demonstrate scientifically how the human brain influences personality. The study of the brain may lead to a greater understanding of human nature and behaviour, according to preliminary findings from electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB) research.
(3)Physical characteristics : It has been demonstrated that a person's personality is significantly influenced by his outward appearance. In line with Paul H. Mussen "A child's physical traits may influence how he interacts with others, what they expect of him, and how they respond to him. These, in turn, might affect how a person develops their personality." A girl or boy that is maturing quickly or slowly may experience various physical and social conditions and activities, respectively. According to psychologists, a person's personality will also be influenced by their differing rates of maturation.
Family and Social FactorsThe family is likely to have the biggest influence on early personality development. A significant body of empirical research suggests that, in addition to their direct impact, the parents' total home environment shapes how children develop into their personalities. For instance, children raised by parents in a warm, loving, and interesting environment are considerably less likely to be socially and emotionally maladjusted than children raised in a chilly, uninspiring home. In the self-identification probes, which are crucial to a person's early development, parents play a significant influence. A child copies their parents' or their neighbour's behaviour during their formative years. Therefore, it is the family's duty for all adults who interact with the child directly to behave in an ideal manner.The family shapes a child's character through examples, encouragement, reinforcement, rewards, and punishment. The following elements also affect the type of family influence:
- Parents educational level
- Geographic location
- Socioeconomic status of the family
- Family size
- Birth order and siblings
Later, social groups and other family members may have an impact on the socialisation process. Along with family members, other influences on behaviour include friends, coworkers, associations, and groups to which an individual belongs. Such behaviours are a reflection of a person's personality, and social influences—both within and outside the workplace—continue to have an impact on people's personalities and behaviours throughout their lives.
Cultural FactorsHoebel claims that culture is the "sum total of learned behavioural traits that are manifested and shared by the members of the society." Culture is a particular set of perceptions, beliefs, values, norms, patterns of behaviour, and a code of conduct that shapes how people behave in a particular society. The culture in which a person is raised significantly affects his or her personality. Each culture expects and teaches its members to act in ways that are acceptable to the group, according to Mussen.
Researchers were unable to demonstrate a linear relationship between the ideas of "personality" and "culture" despite the significance of culture on personality. People who are born into a certain culture are exposed to the current values, beliefs, and standards of that society with regard to what constitutes acceptable behaviour. Such cultures would also outline the mechanisms by which these behaviours are rewarded. For instance, the American cultural environment rewards a spirit of independence, aggression, and competition, whereas the Japanese cultural environment rewards attitudes of cooperation and teamwork. Similar to how cultural influences lead to more impersonal and functional authority in American organisations, managers actively participate in their employees' personal life in Japanese culture.