Cloud computing, Introduction, types, and details

Safalta Expert Published by: Avinash Kumar Updated Thu, 15 Feb 2024 11:36 AM IST

Highlights

Computing is a kind of technology where the resource is provided as a service through the Internet to the user. This data can be anything like photos, videos, documents, files, or maybe who can be stored.

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Today all kinds of companies or industries accept cloud computing whether it is a multi-national company (MNC) or any startup company who are still moving towards this side. Due to cloud computing, they need less maintenance, help in cost cutting, and the increased capacity of the data with the help of servers maintained by the cloud providers. Cloud computing works to store the data, program, and access remote servers that are hosted on the internet besides any kind of storing device like computer hardware or any kind of local servers.
It is based on computing via the use of the internet. Computing is a kind of technology where the resource is provided as a service through the Internet to the user. This data can be anything like photos, videos, documents, files, or maybe who can be stored.

Since 1960 cloud computing Has developed with several lines with Web 2.0 being the most recent evolution.

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One of the first milestones in cloud computing history was the arrival of  "Salesforce. com" in 1999, which pioneered the concept of delivering enterprise applications via a simple website. The next development was Amazon Web Services(AWS) in 2002, which provided a suite of cloud-based services including storage, computation, and even human intelligence through Amazon Mechanical Turk.

Then in 2006, Amazon launched its Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) as a commercial web service that allows small companies and individuals to rent computers on which to run their computer applications. Another big milestone came in 2009, as Web 2.0 hit its stride, and Google and others started to offer browser-based enterprise applications, through services such as Google Apps.
Recently past years cloud computing has grown rapidly in a big business. it's common to find a provider that offers software as a service(SaaS), infrastructure as a service (IaaS), or platform as a service(PaaS).
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Here are a few common tops of the list.

1. Cloud infrastructure usage and adoption by commercial and private users continue to increase. According to the report by Canalys, in Q4 of 2022 (a quarter of the financial year for companies) cloud infrastructure service expenditure grew 23% on the year. the total expenditures totaled USD 65.8 billion. the total costs grew by 29% to USD 247.1 Billion. it indicates rising costs and current inflation rates as primary drivers.

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2. In Q4 Synergy reports that total infrastructure service revenues  USD 178 billion. estimate that quarterly infrastructure service revenue including IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS was USD 50.5 billion.
Microsoft google and Alibaba grow at a greater pace than Amazon and the total revenue is up 37% from 2020.

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3. Amazon AWS is the market leader in total spending with a 32% share market and Google Cloud market share own is share is 10%. Amazon Microsoft and Google grew at 26%. Microsoft Azure is the closest competitor of Amazon AWS because it is owning 23% market share.

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4. Since 2018 Microsoft's market increased 8%. From 2021 to 2022 quarter month Q4 Microsoft cloud market grew by 2% overall market share of 23% worldwide. later Microsoft Azure grew 31% year on year. IBM has lost market share sitting at under 5% in 2022.

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Types of clouds computing 

1. Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)- A provider licenses an application to customers either service demand through a subscription charged as usage or maybe no charge when there is the chance to make income from streams other than users. such as from advertisement or user list sales. According to the report, SaaS will soon become common in every organization, and buyers and users of technology must understand what SaaS is and where it is suitable.

2. Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS)- A platform that allows to designing of web applications quickly and easily without the complexity of buying and maintaining the software and infrastructure is defined as a Platform as a Service. e. PaaS is comparable to SaaS except that, rather than being software delivered over the web, it is a platform for the creation of software, delivered over the web.

3. Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)- It is a way of distributing infrastructure like Servers, Storage networks, and operating systems according to demand. Instead buying of servers, software, data center space, or network equipment, clients buy resource who is fully outsourced service as a demand. Internet Engineering Task –Force(IETF) is an example of the IaaS model to be the most basic service model.

4. Big-Data-as-a-Service (BDaaS)- It is a combination structure of Hadoop as a Service (HDaaS), Data-as-a-Service (DaaS), and Data Analytics as a Service (DaaS). Extensive growth of data is one of the key drivers prevailing in this space. The global Big-Data-as-a-Service (BDaaS) market is likely to grow from $1.8 billion in 2015 to $7 billion by 2020, at a CAGR of 31.5 % during the forecast period.

5. Hadoop-as-a-Service (HaaS)- This is a data storage processing system that enables data storage, file sharing, data analytics, etc. With the growth of social media and Internet communication, Hadoop is being largely used by companies ranging from Facebook to Yahoo. According to Research and Markets, the Hadoop-as-a-service market will grow approximately by 85% year by year from 2014 to 2019.

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ROOTS OF CLOUD COMPUTING

1. Autonomic Computing: seeks to improve systems by decreasing human involvement in their operation.

2. Autonomic, or self-managing, systems rely on monitoring probes and gauges (sensors), on an adaptation engine (autonomic manager) for computing optimizations based on monitoring data, and on effectors to carry out changes on the system.

3. IBM’s Autonomic Computing Initiative - four properties of autonomic systems: self-configuration, self-optimization, self-healing, and self-protection.

4. Reference model for autonomic control loops of autonomic managers, called MAPE-K (Monitor Analyze Plan Execute—Knowledge)

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LAYERS AND TYPES OF CLOUDS

1. Infrastructure as a Service- cloud infrastructure offers multiple servers running using operating systems and customized software Stacks. It depends on demand from users. Infrastructure services are considered the bottom layer of cloud computing systems. Offering virtualized resources like data computation, storage, and communication on demand is known as Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). One of the best examples is Amazon Web Services mainly offers IaaS, which in the case of its EC2 service means offering VMs with a software stack that can be customized similar to how an ordinary physical server would be customized.

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2. Platform as a Service- A cloud platform offers an environment in which developers create and deploy applications and do not necessarily need to know how many processors or how much memory those applications will be using. In addition, multiple programming models and specialized services (e.g., data access, authentication, and payments) are offered as building blocks for new applications. One of the best examples is Google AppEngine, an example of a Platform as a Service, that offers a scalable environment for developing and hosting Web applications, which should be written in specific programming languages such as Python or Java, and use the service's own proprietary structured object data store. 
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3. Software as a service- Traditional desktop applications such as word processing and spreadsheets can now be accessed as a service on the Web. This model of delivering applications, known as Software as a Service (SaaS), alleviates the burden of software maintenance for customers and simplifies development and testing for providers. Salesforce.com, which relies on the SaaS model, offers business productivity applications (CRM) that reside completely on its servers, allowing customers to customize and access applications on demand.

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cloud computing has become widely accepted by companies of all sizes due to its benefits such as cost-cutting, increased data capacity, and reduced maintenance. The market for cloud infrastructure services continues to grow, with Microsoft, Google, and Alibaba experiencing significant growth. There are different types of cloud computing, including Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS). Autonomic computing and different layers of cloud computing, such as IaaS and PaaS, are also important aspects of the cloud computing landscape.

What is cloud computing

 Cloud computing is a technology that allows users to store, access, and manage data and programs remotely on servers hosted on the internet, rather than on local devices such as computers or servers.

How has cloud computing evolved over time

Cloud computing has evolved since the 1960s, with milestones including the arrival of Salesforce.com in 1999, Amazon Web Services (AWS) in 2002, and the launch of Google Apps in 2009.

What are the common types of cloud computing

The common types of cloud computing include Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Big-Data-as-a-Service (BDaaS), and Hadoop-as-a-Service (HaaS).

What is Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)

SaaS involves licensing applications to customers through a subscription, charged based on usage or through alternative revenue streams such as advertising.

What is Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS)

PaaS allows for the quick and easy design of web applications without the complexity of purchasing and maintaining software and infrastructure.

What is Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)

 IaaS involves the distribution of infrastructure, such as servers, storage, and networks, on demand, rather than purchasing and maintaining physical equipment.
 

What is Big-Data-as-a-Service (BDaaS)

BDaaS is a combination of Hadoop-as-a-Service, Data-as-a-Service, and Data Analytics as a Service, which is driven by the extensive growth of data and is expected to grow significantly in the coming years.

What is Hadoop-as-a-Service (HaaS)

 HaaS is a data storage processing system that enables the storage and processing of large volumes of data.
 

What are some recent trends in cloud computing usage and adoption

Recent trends include the increasing adoption of cloud infrastructure services, with significant growth in expenditures and revenues, as well as the market share and growth rates of key providers such as Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud.

How has cloud computing impacted businesses and industries

Cloud computing has enabled businesses to reduce maintenance costs, increase data capacity, and access resources as a service over the internet, leading to widespread adoption across various industries.

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