Basic Components of Computer, Definition, Functions, and Exercises

Safalta Expert Published by: Noor Fatima Updated Thu, 27 Oct 2022 11:33 AM IST

Highlights

Here is all you need to know about the Basic Components of Computer. Read the article to learn and understand the the Basic Components of Computer and their functions. 

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Components of Computer: A computer has become an essential part of our lives, particularly at this time when everything has turned online. Starting from glasses to board meetings to payments and everything else. Everything has become dependent on computer systems. When computer devices have become so important to us, it becomes essential that we know about them. So, Let's begin.  A computer device comprises numerous elements, which can assist in proper functioning and processing.

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There are five fundamental components of the computer, which help make data processing convenient and easier. In this blog, we will be learning about the basic components of computers along with their corresponding functions. Moreover, for candidates aiming to appear in any exam related to the computer, this blog would be very helpful for them. 

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Table of Content
Five components of a computer system
Input unit
Output unit
Memory unit
Control unit
Arithmetic and Logical unit
Central Processing unit

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Considering the definition, components of a computer system are the basic elements, which make the functions of electronic devices faster and smoother. There are five fundamental components of the computer, including the following- 
  • Input unit (IU)
  • Output unit (OU)
  • Memory unit (MU)
  • Control unit (CU)
  • Arithmetical and logical unit (ALU)
The exterior section of any computer gadget may seem different and have multiple features. However, the fundamental components remain the same for their functions. Computers in multiple forms have become a vital part of everyday life. Therefore, understanding the components and their functions is important for everyone. Candidates aiming to appear in competitive exams should learn these computer components as multiple choice questions may appear from the section in their exams. 
 

Five components of a computer system

There are five basic components of a computer. These are the input unit, output unit, memory unit, control unit, and arithmetical and logical unit. Let us learn them in detail, along with their functions and purposes.
 

Input unit

A computer device responds when you give a command to it. These commands are given with the help of input devices or the input unit.
For example a keyboard. We use a keyboard to type things on a notepad or word, and the computer process the entered data and display the output of the same data on the computer screen.

The data you entered can be in the form of alphabets, numbers, images, or others. Input devices are used to enter the information and the processing units transform them into computer language. Finally, the output devices or output units make them understandable for humans to convert into the same language.
 

Output unit

When we give any command to a computer, it replies to the action done and comes up with a result. This result is called 'output'. There are numerous output devices attached to the computer. The most fundamental among them is a monitor.
 

Whatever we enter into the computer using a keyboard or mouse is all displayed on the computer screen (monitor). Therefore, the output devices bring us the final result once the entire processing is completed within the mechanism of a machine.
 

Memory unit

When we enter any data into the computer with the help of input devices, the data or information we enter immediately gets saved in the memory unit of the CPU, which stands for the Central processing unit. The presence of some current programming makes the memory unit disseminate the data further to the other parts of the Central processing unit (CPU).
 
In the same way, when the computer processes the result viz, the outcome of our command, it is saved in the memory unit before the output is presented on the screen.
 

Control unit

The Control unit is the core component of a computer, which takes care of the entire functioning of the computer device. It is one of the most important components of a computer system, which collects the data that is entered with the help of input units, allows it to get processed once it is done, receives that output, and displays it to the user on the computer screen.  

The Control unit can be called the center of all processing actions that take place inside the computer system. Generally, the instructions given to the computer, interpretation of the data, and showing the signals to forward the data for output and then retrieve the data; all functions are performed by the control unit.
 

Arithmetic and logical unit

Arithmetic and the logical unit take care of all the mathematical calculations and arithmetic operations in the computer device.

This unit also performs actions such as decision-making and data comparison. Also known as an ALU, arithmetical and logical units include circuits that help perform actions like multiplication, subtraction, addition, division, and other numerical-based calculations.
 

Central processing unit (CPU)

The central processing unit is the most important component of a computer device. It is also known as the brain of the computer. CPU has three major units, including the following-
  • Memory unit
  • Control unit
  • Arithmetic and logical unit 
All these parts are the elements of the CPU that work together for efficient working and data processing. The computing device can do no actions without the permission and execution of the central processing unit.
 

The device comprises circuits that help perform actions like data processing, decision-making, and other functions. Therefore, the central processing unit is the major processing element of the computer. When we talk about the various components of a computer system, the CPU is a must-to-mention unit without which any action or execution can be done in the computer device. 
We hope we have made you understand the Basic Components of Computer and their functions. If you need any assistance, reach out to Safalta School Online. 

What is a component?

A component is a vital element part of anything. In the case of a computer, the components of a computer are described in the blog.

What are the basic components of a computer device?

There are five basic components of a computer device, including the following-
  • Memory unit
  • Control unit
  • Arithmetic and logical unit 

What are the two types of software?

The two types of software in the computer system are programming software and application software.

What are the main components of the Central processing unit?

There are three basic elements of the central processing unit (CPU). These are as follows-
  • Memory unit
  • Control unit 
  • Arithmetic and logical unit

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Safalta school online is an initiative of Safalta Pvt Ltd to help students score well in their exams by sitting in their homes. We provide online lectures that are very beneficial for the students. 

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