NCERT solution for class 8th : Microorganism

Updated Sun, 22 May 2022 12:07 PM IST

Highlights

If you are looking for a microorganism topic in your textbook? So this is for you, In This article, you will get complete information about microorganisms.

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Micro-organisms are found everywhere

 
 In air, water, and land, they are so small that we cannot see them with the naked eye. A microscope is needed to see them. Some are so small that they are visible even when viewed with a magnifying microscope. That is why they are called micro-organisms. Even the things we eat and drink also contain micro-organisms.

Source: Amar ujala

For example, fungi grow on things that we eats.

 
Include In this topic
What is micro-organism
Where Do they live
Beneficial Micro-organism
Harmful micro-organism
Food Poisoning
Food preservation
Nitrogen Fixation & Cycle
 
 These micro-organisms are divided into four parts….
 
• Bacteria
• virus
• Protozoa
• Fungi
 

Micro-organisms: Where do micro-organisms live

 
Microorganisms are found everywhere Microorganisms are unicellular such as bacteria and protozoa. Multicellular such as algae and fungi .that can live from cold icy places to hot desert places, they are found in the air, even in the food we eat, as well as the human body and others. They also live in the body of the animal, some are parasitic on the micro-organism and live as a parasite in the body of other organisms, while single-celled organisms like amoeba are found freely.
 

Micro-organism: Beneficial microorganisms
 

• Some microorganisms help increase the fertility of the soil,
• some microorganisms are very beneficial for us Lactobacillus found in curd helps in curdling.
• In the bakery industry, yeast is a microorganism that comes under the category of fungi,it is used in making bread and buns.
• Some microorganisms help in purifying the environment.
 

 Micro-organism: Harmful micro-organisms

 
Some microorganisms are the cause of disease in humans and organisms, hence they are called pathogens. Below is a table of microbial diseases .
Human Disease Causative Management Mode of Transmission Preventions
 
Tuberculosis Bacteria Air
  • Keep the patient in complete isolation
  • Keep the personal belongings of the patient away from those of the others.
  •  Vaccination to be given at suitable age.
Measles Virus Air
Chickenpox Virus Air/contact
polio Virus Air/Water
Cholera Bacteria Water/food
  • Maintain personal hygiene and good sanitary habits.
  •  Consume appropriately cooked food and boiled drinking water.
  •  Vaccination.
Typhoid Bacteria Water
Hepatitis -B Virus Water
Malaria Protozoa Protozoa
  • Use mosquito net and repellents.
  • Spray insecticides and control the breeding of mosquitoes by  not allowing water  to collect
    in the surroundings.


Micro-organism: Harmful micro-organisms in plants


Below is the table of diseases in plants by micro-organisms.
 
Plant disease Micro-organism Mode of transmission
Citrus canker Bacteria Air
Rust of Wheat Fungi Air seed
Yellow vein of Mosaic of okra Virus Insect



  Micro-organism: Food poisoning

 
There are many micro-organisms due to which food becomes toxic. Some such toxic substances are produced in the food by them that it becomes the cause of disease for us. There are many micro-organisms due to which food becomes toxic. If a person ingests this poisoned food, he can become very seriously ill and even die.
 

Micro-organism: Food preservation

 
We can save our food from getting toxic by food preservation. There are many methods of food preservation that we will talk about below.
• Chemical method, eg glyceric acid sodium benzoate
• Preservation by common salt, eg. In Achar and fish preservation
• Reservation by sugar, like murabba
• Reservation by vinegar and oil, like Achar etc
• Heat and cold preservation like milk
• Storage and packing, eg some vegetables like potato and other fruit and vegetables.
 

Micro-organism: Nitrogen fixation by micro-organisms
 

 bacterium Rhizobium is involved in nitrogen fixation in legitimate plants (pulses). Recall that Rhizobium lives in the root nodules of leguminous plants, such as beans and peas, with which it has fruits, fish and meat are often preserved symbiotic relationships. Sometimes nitrogen gets fixed through the action of lightning. the amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere remains constant.

Micro-organism: Nitrogen cycle

 
Nitrogen contains 78% of our atmosphere, it remains stable because of this nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen present in the atmosphere is not directly absorbed by the plants. Plants have nitrogen fixation micro-organisms in their roots which convert nitrogen into nitrate and this nitrate travels through the land to the plant parts. This tree is in the form of plant food. They are taken up by humans as well as they are food for other animals, when they die, they mix with the soil again to become nitrogen, this cycle goes on continuously and the percentage of nitrogen remains constant. Is called the nitrogen cycle
 
 
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Q1-what is microorganism in biology?

Answer- An organism that can be seen only through a microscope. Microorganisms include bacteria, protozoa, algae, and fungi. Although viruses are not considered living organisms, they are sometimes classified as microorganisms

Q2-Why are microorganism to called microorganism?

Answer- A micro-organism or microbe is an organism which is microscopic, which means so small that people cannot see them with the naked eye.

Q3-Are fungi microorganisms?

Answer- A fungus is a special type of microbe – it doesn't make its own food from the sun like plants, instead it gets its food from dead and decaying plants and animals. You find fungi in damp, warm places but also in the air, soil, water, on plants and in you!

Q4-Is east a fungus?

Answer -Yeast is a fungus that grows as a single cell, rather than as a mushroom,” says Laura Rusche, associate professor of biological sciences. Though each yeast organism is made up of just one cell, yeast cells live together in multicellular colonies.

Q5-Is east a virus or bacteria?

Answer- Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. The first yeast originated hundreds of millions of years ago, and at least 1,500 species are currently recognized. They are estimated to constitute 1% of all described fungal species.

Q6-What does Yeast feed on?

Answer- Yeasts feed on sugars and starches, which are abundant in bread dough! They turn this food into energy and release carbon dioxide gas as a result. This process is known as fermentation. The carbon dioxide gas made during fermentation is what makes a slice of bread so soft and spongy.

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