NCERT Class 12 Books Accountancy Part 2 Chapter 3- Financial Statements of a Company

Safalta Expert Published by: Noor Fatima Updated Tue, 12 Jul 2022 06:22 PM IST

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Here, you can learn the NCERT Class 12 Books Accountancy Part 2 Chapter 3- Financial Statements of a Company. Moreover, you can get the links for other chapters to download the links. 


Table of Content

The starting of the Chapter
Glimpses of the Chapter
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Financial Statements of a Company Goes Like This-

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After studying this chapter, you will be able to-
  • Explain the nature and objectives of financial statements of a company
  • Describe the form and content of Statement of Profit and Loss of a company as per schedule III
  • Describe the form and content of balance sheet of a company as per schedule III
  • Explain the significance and limitations of financial statements
  • Prepare the financial statements
Having understood how a company raises its capital, we have to learn the nature, objectives and types of financial statements it has to prepare including their contents, format, uses and limitations. The financial statements are the end products of accounting process. They are prepared following accounting policies consistently accounting standards prescribed in the Companies Act and accounting concepts, principles, procedures and also the legal environment in which the business organisations operate. These statements are the outcome of the summarising process of accounting and are, therefore, the sources of information on the basis of which conclusions are drawn about the profitability and the financial position of a company. Hence, they need to be arranged in a proper form with suitable contents so that the shareholders and other users of financial statements can easily understand and use them in their economic decisions in a meaningful way.


3.1 Meaning of Financial Statements

Financial statements are the basic and formal annual reports through which the corporate management communicates financial information to its owners and various other external parties which include investors, tax authorities, government, employees, etc. These refer to: the balance sheet (position statement) as at the end of accounting period, the statement of profit and loss of a company and the cash flow statement.


3.2 Nature of Financial Statements

The chronologically recorded facts about events expressed in monetary terms for a defined period of time are the basis for the preparation of periodical financial statements which reveal the financial position as on a date and the financial results obtained during a period. The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants states the nature of financial statements as, “the statements prepared for the purpose of presenting a periodical review of report on progress by the management and deal with the status of investment in the business and the results achieved during the period under review. They reflect a combination of recorded facts, accounting principles and personal judgements”. 

The following points explain the nature of financial statements:

Recorded Facts: Financial statements are prepared on the basis of facts in the form of cost data recorded in accounting books. The original cost or historical cost is the basis of recording transactions. The figures of various accounts such as cash in hand, cash at bank, trade receivables, fixed assets, etc., are taken as per the figures recorded in the accounting books. The assets purchased at different times and at different prices are put together and shown at costs. As these are not based on market prices, the financial statements do not show current financial condition of the concern.

Accounting Conventions: Certain accounting conventions are followed while preparing financial statements. The convention of valuing inventory at cost or market price, whichever is lower, is followed. The valuing of assets at cost less depreciation principle for balance sheet purposes is followed. The convention of materiality is followed in dealing with small items like pencils, pens, postage stamps, etc. These items are treated as expenditure in the year in which they are purchased even though they are assets in nature. The stationery is valued at cost and not on the principle of cost or market price, whichever is less. The use of accounting conventions makes financial statements comparable, simple and realistic.

Postulates: Financial statements are prepared on certain basic assumptions (pre-requisites) known as postulates such as going concern postulate, money measurement postulate, realisation postulate, etc. Going concern postulate assumes that the enterprise is treated as a going concern and exists for a longer period of time. So the assets are shown on historical cost basis. Money measurement postulate assumes that the value of money will remain the same in different periods. Though there is drastic change in purchasing power of money, the assets purchased at different times will be shown at the amount paid for them. While, preparing statement of profit and loss the revenue is included in the sales of the year in which the sale was undertaken even though the sale price may be received over a number of years. The assumption is known as realisation postulate.

Personal Judgements: Under more than one circumstance, facts and figures presented through financial statements are based on personal opinion, estimates and judgements. The depreciation is provided taking into consideration the useful economic life of fixed assets. Provisions for doubtful debts are made on estimates and personal judgements. In valuing inventory, cost or market value, whichever is less is being followed. While deciding either cost of inventory or market value of inventory, many personal judgements are to be made based on certain considerations. Personal opinion, judgements and estimates are made while preparing the financial statements to avoid any possibility of over statement of assets and liabilities, income and expenditure, keeping in mind the convention of conservatism.

Thus, financial statements are the summarised reports of recorded facts and are prepared the following accounting concepts, conventions, accounting policies, accounting standards and requirements of Law.


Some Glimpses of the Chapter are-







NCERT Class 12 Books Accountancy Part 2 Chapter 3- Financial Statements of a Company- PDF Download

Accountancy Part 2 Chapter 3- Financial Statements of a Company

Where can you download NCERT Class 12 Books Accountancy Part 2 Chapter 3 PDF?

Candidates can download NCERT Class 12 Books Accountancy Part 2Chapter 3- Financial Statements of a Company PDF for free on our page. Links are given below.

Accountancy Part 2 Chapter 3- Financial Statements of a Company

Why is NCERT Class 12 Books Accountancy the best study material?

The book can also help in clarifying doubts. Other benefits of studying from the NCERT Class 12 Books Accountancy are-
  • Students gain profound knowledge about Accountancy through the NCERT Books Class 12 Accountancy
  • The course books contain pictures that can help students in better understanding of the chapters
  • These books can help students in self-study

Why is NCERT Class 12 Books Accountancy so recommended for board exams?

Almost all the questions that appear in board exams are from NCERT Books Class 12 Accountancy. Moreover, a team of professional teachers drafts these books, which become a reliable source of study for students.
 

Are the CBSE Books for Class 12 significant for board exams?

For higher courses and board exams, the chapters in the CBSE Books for Class 12 Accountancy are essential. For Class 12 Accountancy, students should read the chapter provided in the CBSE books. These examples and drill questions can help you get high marks.

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