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Here, you can learn the NCERT Class 12 Books Accountancy Part 2 Chapter 3- Financial Statements of a Company. Moreover, you can get the links for other chapters to download the links.
Table of Content
After studying this chapter, you will be able to-
- Explain the nature and objectives of financial statements of a company
- Describe the form and content of Statement of Profit and Loss of a company as per schedule III
- Describe the form and content of balance sheet of a company as per schedule III
- Explain the significance and limitations of financial statements
- Prepare the financial statements
Financial statements are the basic and formal annual reports through which the corporate management communicates financial information to its owners and various other external parties which include investors, tax authorities, government, employees, etc.
3.1 Meaning of Financial Statements
The chronologically recorded facts about events expressed in monetary terms for a defined period of time are the basis for the preparation of periodical financial statements which reveal the financial position as on a date and the financial results obtained during a period.
The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants states the nature of financial statements as, “the statements prepared for the purpose of presenting a periodical review of report on progress by the management and deal with the status of investment in the business and the results achieved during the period under review.
They reflect a combination of recorded facts, accounting principles and personal judgements”.
3.2 Nature of Financial Statements
The following points explain the nature of financial statements:
Recorded Facts: Financial statements are prepared on the basis of facts in the form of cost data recorded in accounting books. The original cost or historical cost is the basis of recording transactions. The figures of various accounts such as cash in hand, cash at bank, trade receivables, fixed assets, etc., are taken as per the figures recorded in the accounting books. The assets purchased at different times and at different prices are put together and shown at costs. As these are not based on market prices, the financial statements do not show current financial condition of the concern.
Accounting Conventions: Certain accounting conventions are followed while preparing financial statements. The convention of valuing inventory at cost or market price, whichever is lower, is followed. The valuing of assets at cost less depreciation principle for balance sheet purposes is followed. The convention of materiality is followed in dealing with small items like pencils, pens, postage stamps, etc. These items are treated as expenditure in the year in which they are purchased even though they are assets in nature. The stationery is valued at cost and not on the principle of cost or market price, whichever is less. The use of accounting conventions makes financial statements comparable, simple and realistic.
Postulates: Financial statements are prepared on certain basic assumptions (pre-requisites) known as postulates such as going concern postulate, money measurement postulate, realisation postulate, etc. Going concern postulate assumes that the enterprise is treated as a going concern and exists for a longer period of time. So the assets are shown on historical cost basis. Money measurement postulate assumes that the value of money will remain the same in different periods. Though there is drastic change in purchasing power of money, the assets purchased at different times will be shown at the amount paid for them. While, preparing statement of profit and loss the revenue is included in the sales of the year in which the sale was undertaken even though the sale price may be received over a number of years. The assumption is known as realisation postulate.
Personal Judgements: Under more than one circumstance, facts and figures presented through financial statements are based on personal opinion, estimates and judgements. The depreciation is provided taking into consideration the useful economic life of fixed assets. Provisions for doubtful debts are made on estimates and personal judgements. In valuing inventory, cost or market value, whichever is less is being followed. While deciding either cost of inventory or market value of inventory, many personal judgements are to be made based on certain considerations. Personal opinion, judgements and estimates are made while preparing the financial statements to avoid any possibility of over statement of assets and liabilities, income and expenditure, keeping in mind the convention of conservatism.
Thus, financial statements are the summarised reports of recorded facts and are prepared the following accounting concepts, conventions, accounting policies, accounting standards and requirements of Law.
NCERT Class 12 Books Accountancy Part 2 Chapter 3- Financial Statements of a Company- PDF Download
Accountancy Part 2 Chapter 3- Financial Statements of a Company
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Accountancy Part 2 Chapter 3- Financial Statements of a Company
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