NCERT Class 12 Books Biology Chapter 14- Ecosystem

Safalta Expert Published by: Noor Fatima Updated Fri, 01 Jul 2022 11:54 PM IST


Here is the information about NCERT Class 12 Books Biology Chapter 14. You can give a read to this blog and get PDFs of the subject. 

Students studying in CBSE Class 12 can access NCERT Class 12 Books Biology Chapter 14- Ecosystem here. It is PDF format. You can download the PDF for and learn from the book anytime you want. Students who are studying in Class 12 and candidates who are preparing for competitive exams can download the PDF for NCERT Class 12 Books Biology Chapter 14- Ecosystem to learn from the reading material.  

If you take NCERT Books as references for the examinations, you would appreciate your decision as most of the questions that appear in board exams are from these books.

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Here, you can learn the NCERT Class 12 Books Biology Chapter 14- Ecosystem. Moreover, you can get the links for other Chapter 14s to download the links. 


An ecosystem can be visualised as a functional unit of nature, where living organisms interact among themselves and also with the surrounding physical environment. Ecosystem varies greatly in size from a small pond to a large forest or a sea. Many ecologists regard the entire biosphere as a global ecosystem, as a composite of all local ecosystems on Earth. Since this system is too much big and complex to be studied at one time, it is convenient to divide it into two basic categories, namely the terrestrial and the aquatic. Forest, grassland and desert are some examples of terrestrial ecosystems; pond, lake, wetland, river and estuary are some examples of aquatic ecosystems. Crop fields and an aquarium may also be considered as man-made ecosystems.

We will first look at the structure of the ecosystem, in order to appreciate the input (productivity), transfer of energy (food chain/web, nutrient cycling) and the output (degradation and energy loss). We will also look at the relationships – cycles, chains, webs – that are created as a result of these energy flows within the system and their inter- relationship.


In chapter 13, you have looked at the various components of the environment- abiotic and biotic. You studied how the individual biotic and abiotic factors affected each other and their surrounding. Let us look at these components in a more integrated manner and see how the flow of energy takes place within these components of the ecosystem. Interaction of biotic and abiotic components result in a physical structure that is characteristic for each type of ecosystem. Identification and enumeration of plant and animal species of an ecosystem gives its species composition. Vertical distribution of different species occupying different levels is called stratification. For example, trees occupy top vertical strata or layer of a forest, shrubs the second and herbs and grasses occupy the bottom layers.
The components of the ecosystem are seen to function as a unit when you consider the following aspects:

(i) Productivity;

(ii) Decomposition;

(iii) Energy flow;

(iv) Nutrient cycling.

To understand the ethos of an aquatic ecosystem let us take a small pond as an example. This is fairly a self-sustainable unit and rather simple example that explain even the complex interactions that exist in an aquatic ecosystem. A pond is a shallow water body in which all the above mentioned four basic components of an ecosystem are well exhibited. The abiotic component is the water with all the dissolved inorganic and organic substances and the rich soil deposit at the bottom of the pond. The solar input, the cycle of temperature, day-length and other climatic conditions regulate the rate of function of the entire pond. The autotrophic components include the phytoplankton, some algae and the floating, submerged and marginal plants found at the edges. The consumers are represented by the zooplankton, the free swimming and bottom dwelling forms. The decomposers are the fungi, bacteria and flagellates especially abundant in the bottom of the pond. This system performs all the functions of any ecosystem and of the biosphere as a whole, i.e., conversion of inorganic into organic material with the help of the radiant energy of the sun by the autotrophs; consumption of the autotrophs by heterotrophs; decomposition and mineralisation of the dead matter to release them back for reuse by the autotrophs, these event are repeated over and over again. There is unidirectional movement of energy towards the higher trophic levels and its dissipation and loss as heat to the environment.


A constant input of solar energy is the basic requirement for any ecosystem to function and sustain. Primary production is defined as the amount of biomass or organic matter produced per unit area over a time period by plants during photosynthesis. It is expressed in terms of weight (gm–2 ) or energy (kcal m–2 ). The rate of biomass production is called productivity. It is expressed in terms of gm–2 yr –1 or (kcal m–2 ) yr –1 to compare the productivity of different ecosystems. It can be divided into gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP). Gross primary productivity of an ecosystem is the rate of production of organic matter during photosynthesis. A considerable amount of GPP is utilised by plants in respiration. Gross primary productivity minus respiration losses (R), is the net primary productivity (NPP).

Net primary productivity is the available biomass for the consumption to heterotrophs (herbiviores and decomposers). Secondary productivity is defined as the rate of formation of new organic matter by consumers.

Primary productivity depends on the plant species inhabiting a particular area. It also depends on a variety of environmental factors, availability of nutrients and photosynthetic capacity of plants. Therefore, it varies in different types of ecosystems. The annual net primary productivity of the whole biosphere is approximately 170 billion tons (dry weight) of organic matter. Of this, despite occupying about 70 per cent of the surface, the productivity of the oceans are only 55 billion tons. Rest of course, is on land. Discuss the main reason for the low productivity of ocean with your teacher. 

NCERT Class 12 Books Biology Chapter 14- Ecosystem- PDF Download

Chapter 14: Ecosystem

अध्याय 14: पारितंत्र

Where can you download NCERT Class 12 Books Biology Chapter 14 PDF?

Candidates can download NCERT Class 12 Books Biology Chapter 14- Ecosystem PDF for free on our page. Links are given below.

Chapter 14: Ecosystem

अध्याय 14: पारितंत्र

What are the topics covered in NCERT Class 12 biology Chapter 14?

The Topics covered are-
  • Ecosystem
  • Structure and Function
  • Productivity
  • Decomposition
  • Energy Flow
  • Ecological Pyramids
  • Ecological Succession
  • Nutrient Cycling 
  • Ecosystem Services

Why should students study from NCERT Books Class 12 Biology for board exams?

Almost all the questions that appear in board exams are from NCERT Books Class 12 Science. Moreover, a team of professional teachers drafts these books, which become a reliable source of study for students.

Why are CBSE Books for Class 12 Biology so important?

The Chapter 14 in CBSE Books for Class 12 Biology are vital for board exams and higher classes. Students should read the Unit given in the CBSE books for Class 12 Science. These stories and practice questions can help gain excellent marks.

To get outstanding marks, we provide mock test papers that can help gear-up your preparations for exams. Additionally, you can also download e-books to get yourself prepared even in a better way.

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