NCERT Class 12 Books Biology Chapter 9- Strategies for Enhancement in Food Reproduction

Safalta Expert Published by: Noor Fatima Updated Fri, 01 Jul 2022 12:34 AM IST

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STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCEMENT IN FOOD PRODUCTION

With ever -increasing population of the world, enhancement of food production is a major necessity. Biological principles as applied to animal husbandry and plant breeding have a major role in our efforts to increase food production. Several new techniques like embryo transfer technology and tissue culture techniques are going to play a pivotal role in further enhancing food production.


9.1 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock. As such it is a vital skill for farmers and is as much science as it is art. Animal husbandry deals with the care and breeding of livestock like buffaloes, cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats, etc., that are useful to humans. Extended, it includes poultry farming and fisheries. Fisheries include rearing, catching, selling, etc., of fish, molluscs (shell-fish) and crustaceans (prawns, crabs, etc.). Since time immemorial, animals like bees, silk-worm, prawns, crabs, fishes, birds, pigs, cattle, sheep and camels have been used by humans for products like milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey, etc.

It is estimated that more then 70 per cent of the world livestock population is in India and China. However, it is surprising to note that the contribution to the world farm produce is only 25 per cent, i.e., the productivity per unit is very low. Hence, in addition to conventional practices of animal breeding and care, newer technologies also have to be applied to achieve improvement in quality and productivity.

9.1.1 Management of Farms and Farm Animals

A professional approach to what have been traditional practices of farm management gives the much needed boost to our food production. Let us discuss some of the management procedures, employed in various animal farm systems.

9.1.1.1 Dairy Farm Management

Dairying is the management of animals for milk and its products for human consumption. Can you list the animals that you would expect to find in a dairy? What are different kinds of products that can be made with milk from a dairy farm? In dairy farm management, we deal with processes and systems that increase yield and improve quality of milk. Milk yield is primarily dependent on the quality of breeds in the farm. Selection of good breeds having high yielding potential (under the climatic conditions of the area), combined with resistance to diseases is very important. For the yield potential to be realised the cattle have to be well looked after – they have to be housed well, should have adequate water and be maintained disease free. The feeding of cattle should be carried out in a scientific manner – with special emphasis on the quality and quantity of fodder. Besides, stringent cleanliness and hygiene (both of the cattle and the handlers) are of paramount importance while milking, storage and transport of the milk and its products. Nowadays, of course, much of these processes have become mechanised, which reduces chance of direct contact of the produce with the handler. Ensuring these stringent measures would of course, require regular inspections, with proper record keeping. It would also help to identify and rectify the problems as early as possible. Regular visits by a veterinary doctor would be mandatory.

You would probably find it interesting if you were to prepare a questionnaire on diverse aspects of dairy keeping and then follow it up with a visit to a dairy farm in your locality and seek answers to the questions. 

9.1.1.2 Poultry Farm Management

Poultry is the class of domesticated fowl (birds) used for food or for their eggs. They typically include chicken and ducks, and sometimes turkey and geese. The word poultry is often used to refer to the meat of only these birds, but in a more general sense it may refer to the meat of other birds too. As in dairy farming, selection of disease free and suitable breeds, proper and safe farm conditions, proper feed and water, and hygiene and health care are important components of poultry farm management.

You may have seen TV news or read newspaper – reports about the ‘bird flu virus’ which created a scare in the country and drastically affected egg and chicken consumption. Find out more about it and discuss whether the panic reaction was justified. How can we prevent the spread of the flu in case some chicken are infected?


9.1.2 Animal Breeding

Breeding of animals is an important aspect of animal husbandry. Animal breeding aims at increasing the yield of animals and improving the desirable qualities of the produce. For what kind of characters would we breed animals? Would the selection of characters differ with the choice of animals? What do we understand by the term ‘breed’? A group of animals related by descent and similar in most characters like general appearance, features, size, configuration, etc., are said to belong to a breed. Find out the names of some common breeds of cattle and poultry in the farms of your area. When breeding is between animals of the same breed it is called inbreeding, while crosses between different breeds are called outbreeding. 

Inbreeding : Inbreeding refers to the mating of more closely related individuals within the same breed for 4- 6 generations. The breeding strategy is as follows – superior males and superior females of the same breed are identified and mated in pairs. The progeny obtained from such matings are evaluated and superior males and females among them are identified for further mating. A superior female, in the case of cattle, is the cow or buffalo that produces more milk per lactation. On the other hand, a superior male is the bull, which gives rise to superior progeny as compared to those of other males.

Try to recollect the homozygous purelines developed by Mendel as discussed in Chapter 5. A similar strategy is used for developing purelines in cattle as was used in case of peas. Inbreeding increases homozygosity. Thus inbreeding is necessary if we want to evolve a pureline in any animal. Inbreeding exposes harmful recessive genes that are eliminated by selection. It also helps in accumulation of superior genes and elimination of less desirable genes. Therefore, this approach, where there is selection at each step, increases the productivity of inbred population. However, continued inbreeding, especially close inbreeding, usually reduces fertility and even productivity. This is called inbreeding depression. Whenever this becomes a problem, selected animals of the breeding population should be mated with unrelated superior animals of the same breed. This usually helps restore fertility and yield.

Out-breeding : Out-breeding is the breeding of the unrelated animals, which may be between individuals of the same breed but having no common ancestors for 4-6 generations (out-crossing) or between different breeds (cross-breeding) or different species (inter-specific hybridisation).

Out-crossing: This is the practice of mating of animals within the same breed, but having no common ancestors on either side of their pedigree up to 4-6 generations. The offspring of such a mating is known as an out-cross. It is the best breeding method for animals that are below average in productivity in milk production, growth rate in beef cattle, etc. A single outcross often helps to overcome inbreeding depression.

Cross-breeding: In this method, superior males of one breed are mated with superior females of another breed. Cross-breeding allows the desirable qualities of two different breeds to be combined. The progeny hybrid animals may themselves be used for commercial production. Alternatively, they may be subjected to some form of inbreeding and selection to develop new stable breeds that may be superior to the existing breeds. Many new animal breeds have been developed by this approach. Hisardale is a new breed of sheep developed in Punjab by crossing Bikaneri ewes and Marino rams.

Interspecific hybridisation: In this method, male and female animals of two different related species are mated. In some cases, the progeny may combine desirable features of both the parents, and may be of considerable economic value, e.g., the mule (Figure 9.2). Do you know what cross leads to the production of the mule? 














NCERT Class 12 Books Biology Chapter 9- Strategies for Enhancement in Food Reproduction- PDF Download

Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

अध्याय 9: खाद्य उत्पादन में वृद्धि की कार्यनीति

Where can you download NCERT Class 12 Books Biology Chapter 9 PDF?

Candidates can download NCERT Class 12 Books Biology Chapter 9- Strategies for Enhancement in Food Reproduction PDF for free on our page. Links are given below.

Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

अध्याय 9: खाद्य उत्पादन में वृद्धि की कार्यनीति

Why is NCERT Books Class 12 Biology the best study material?

The book can also help in clarifying doubts. Other benefits of studying from the NCERT Books Class 12 Biology are-
  • Students gain profound knowledge about Biology through the NCERT Books Class 12 Biology
  • The course books contain pictures that can help students in better understanding of the Chapter 9s
  • These books can help students in self-study

Why is NCERT Books Class 12 Biology so recommended for board exams?

Almost all the questions that appear in board exams are from NCERT Books Class 12 Science. Moreover, a team of professional teachers drafts these books, which become a reliable source of study for students.
 

Are CBSE Books for Class 12 Biology important from an examination perspective?

The Chapter 9s in CBSE Books for Class 12 Biology are vital for board exams and higher classes. Students should read the Unit given in the CBSE books for Class 12 Science. These stories and practice questions can help gain excellent marks.

To get outstanding marks, we provide mock test papers that can help gear-up your preparations for exams. Additionally, you can also download e-books to get yourself prepared even in a better way.
 

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