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By now, you have learnt the basic principles of chemistry and also realised that it influences every sphere of human life.
Chemistry in Everyday Life
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Drugs and their ClassificationDrugs are chemicals of low molecular masses (~100 – 500u). These interact with macromolecular targets and produce a biological response. When the biological response is therapeutic and useful, these chemicals are called medicines and are used in diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases. Most of the drugs used as medicines are potential poisons, if taken in doses higher than those recommended. Use of chemicals for therapeutic effect is called chemotherapy.
Drugs can be classified mainly on criteria outlined as follows:
(a) On the basis of pharmacological effect
This classification is based on pharmacological effect of the drugs. It is useful for doctors because it provides them the whole range of drugs available for the treatment of a particular type of problem. For example, analgesics have pain killing effect, antiseptics kill or arrest the growth of microorganisms.
(b) On the basis of drug action
It is based on the action of a drug on a particular biochemical process. For example, all antihistamines inhibit the action of the compound, histamine which causes inflammation in the body. There are various ways in which action of histamines can be blocked. You will learn about this in Section 16.3.2.
(c) On the basis of chemical structure
It is based on the chemical structure of the drug. Drugs classified in this way share common structural features and often have similar pharmacological activity. For example, sulphonamides have common structural feature, given below.
(d) On the basis of molecular targets
Drugs usually interact with biomolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. These are called target molecules or drug targets. Drugs possessing some common structural features may have the same mechanism of action on targets. The classification based on molecular targets is the most useful classification for medicinal chemists.
NCERT Class 12 Books Chemistry Chapter 16- Chemistry in Everyday Life- PDF Download
Unit 16: Chemistry in Everyday Life
अध्याय 16: दैनिक जीवन में रसायन
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