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Here, you can learn the NCERT Class 12 Books Chemistry Unit 4- Chemical Kinetics. Moreover, you can get the links for other chapters to download the links.
The Chapter Goes Like This-
After studying this Unit, you will be able to-
- Define the average and instantaneous rate of a reaction
- Express the rate of a reaction in terms of change in concentration of either of the reactants or products with time
- Distinguish between elementary and complex reactions
- Differentiate between the molecularity and order of a reaction
- Define rate constant
- Discuss the dependence of rate of reactions on concentration, temperature and catalyst
- Derive integrated rate equations for the zero and first order reactions
- Determine the rate constants for zeroth and first order reactions
- Describe collision theory
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(a) the feasibility of a chemical reaction which can be predicted by thermodynamics ( as you know that a reaction with DG < 0, at constant temperature and pressure is feasible)
(b) extent to which a reaction will proceed can be determined from chemical equilibrium
(c) speed of a reaction i.e. time taken by a reaction to reach equilibrium
Along with feasibility and extent, it is equally important to know the rate and the factors controlling the rate of a chemical reaction for its complete understanding. For example, which parameters determine as to how rapidly food gets spoiled? How to design a rapidly setting material for dental filling? Or what controls the rate at which fuel burns in an auto engine? All these questions can be answered by the branch of chemistry, which deals with the study of reaction rates and their mechanisms, called chemical kinetics. The word kinetics is derived from the Greek word ‘kinesis’ meaning movement.
Thermodynamics tells only about the feasibility of a reaction whereas chemical kinetics tells about the rate of a reaction. For example, thermodynamic data indicate that diamond shall convert to graphite but in reality the conversion rate is so slow that the change is not perceptible at all. Therefore, most people think that diamond is forever. Kinetic studies not only help us to determine the speed or rate of a chemical reaction but also describe the conditions by which the reaction rates can be altered. The factors such as concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst affect the rate of a reaction. At the macroscopic level, we are interested in amounts reacted or formed and the rates of their consumption or formation. At the molecular level, the reaction mechanisms involving orientation and energy of molecules undergoing collisions, are discussed.
In this Unit, we shall be dealing with average and instantaneous rate of reaction and the factors affecting these. Some elementary ideas about the collision theory of reaction rates are also given. However, in order to understand all these, let us first learn about the reaction rate.
Some reactions such as ionic reactions occur very fast, for example, precipitation of silver chloride occurs instantaneously by mixing of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and sodium chloride.
On the other hand, some reactions are very slow, for example, rusting of iron in the presence of air and moisture.
Also there are reactions like inversion of cane sugar and hydrolysis of starch, which proceed with a moderate speed.
Can you think of more examples from each category?
Rate of a Chemical Reaction
You must be knowing that speed of an automobile is expressed in terms of change in the position or distance covered by it in a certain period of time. Similarly, the speed of a reaction or the rate of a reaction can be defined as the change in concentration of a reactant or product in unit time. To be more specific, it can be expressed in terms of:
(i) the rate of decrease in concentration of any one of the reactants, or
(ii) the rate of increase in concentration of any one of the products.
Consider a hypothetical reaction, assuming that the volume of the
system remains constant.
You can download the complete book from the link given below.
NCERT Class 12 Books Chemistry Unit 4- Chemical Kinetics- PDF Download
Unit 4: Chemical Kinetics
अध्याय 4: रासायनिक बलगतिकी
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