NCERT Class 8th Science Chapter -3 Synthetic fibers and plastic

Updated Thu, 26 May 2022 04:28 PM IST


If you want to know about synthetic fiber then this article can be important for you. Get all the information about synthetic fiber from this article.

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The clothes we wear are made of fabric and fabric is made up of fibers. In the olden days these fibers were obtained from natural materials like cotton fabrics were made from cotton, jute etc. and woolen clothes were made from wool from sheep. At present, many such synthetic fibers have been made which are being used in place of natural fibers and are more beautiful, durable and convenient than natural fibers. Today we will talk about these, so let us know which are the artificial fibers that we use to make clothes.

Synthetic fibers are made by humans.

Source: Amar ujala

Synthetic fibers are made by chemical reaction on natural substances, in which wood pulp is mostly used. These chemical fibers are in the form of synthetic chains. Many smaller units combine to form a large china called a polymer. The word polymer is derived from the Latin words poly and mer. Poly means many and mer means unit. Soi in polymers, many units combine to form a ppolymer
Know more:-
  • NCERT solution for class 8th : Microorganism
  • Class 8th NCERT solutionsCrops and its management

Types of artificial fiber or man-made fiber


Nylon is the substitute of silk. Looks very beautiful like silk. It is made by chemical process on wood pulp. Rayon can be dyed in many colors. It is mixed with wool to make rugs and by mixing it with cotton, bedsheets are made.


Nylon is the first man-made fiber to be made from wood and animal raw materials. It is very strong, parachutes and ropes are made from it, many things made from it are used in the house like brush car seat mat sleeping bag.


Polyester is another man-made fiber that can be made into very thin filaments. Fabrics made of polyester do not crumple quickly and are easy to maintain. Like terylene terrycot etc. You must have heard about PET, it is also a type of polyester from which utensils used in the house, bottles etc. are made.
While using synthetic fibers it is necessary to keep in mind that one should not use them while working in fire or kitchen because synthetic fibers catch you very quickly and there is a possibility of burning.


Acrylic is also a type of synthetic fibres. It is used as a substitute for wool. Those obtained from animals are very expensive and their maintenance is also not easy. But it is very cheap and durable. It is accessible to all. These days most woolen clothes are made from this.

properties of synthetic fibers

• They are easy to maintain and does not affected by insects and fungus.
• Some synthetic fibers do not need to pressing, they do not even have folds.
• It is easy to wash and dry quick
• It is much cheaper than natural fibres.
• These fabrics also have a longer lifespan than natural fibres, which is why it is more popular.


Like synthetic fibers, plastic is also a polymeric fiber, it is man-made, many things made of plastic, we use in our daily life. There are many such things around us which are made of plastic. It can be easily molded into any mold, it can be applied in many colors, it can be given any color, it can also be made into thin sheets. There are two types of plastic.
1. Thermoplastic-Thermoplastics are easily deformed on heating, from which comb toys etc, are made.

2. . Thermosetting plastic- The plastic which does not melt quickly by heat is a thermosetting plastic, the things made of it are very durable and strong such as bakelite and melamine


Characteristic Properties of Plastics

• Plastic is unreactive.
• it is cheap, durable and permanent.
• It is a bad conductor of heat.

Plastic and environment

• Biodegradation- The things which get decomposed by the micro-organisms present in the soil are called biodegradable substances.
• Non-Biodegradation-The things which cannot be decomposed by microorganisms are called non-biodegradation.
Plastic being non-reactive does not decompose quickly. It takes years to decompose. Which is very harmful for the environment. Natural things are decomposed by micro-organisms, plastic is not decomposed. That is why it should be used to a minimum, if plastic things are used, then they should be reused by recycling.

Q1-what are the synthetic fibre and plastic?

Answer -Synthetic fibres and plastics, like natural fi- bres, are made of very large units called poly- mers. Polymers are made up of many smaller units. О While natural fibres are obtained from plants and animals, synthetic fibres are obtained by chemical processing of petrochemicals.

Q2-what is the difference between synthetic fibre and plastic?

Answer-Materials used to make synthetic fibers can be used to make plastics, but not all materials used in making plastics can be used for synthetic fibers. Most fibers are made from compounds that form long polymer strands, e.g., nylon and dacron.
             A plastic is generally a synthetic polymer that can be melt processed.

Q3-what is called synthetic fibre?

Answer -Any of various man-made textile fibers including usually those made from natural materials (such as rayon and acetate from cellulose or regenerated protein fibers from zein or casein) as well as fully synthetic fibers (such as nylon or acrylic fibers) — compare polymer.

Q4-what are plastic material?

Answer-Plastic is a lightweight, durable, inexpensive and easy-to-modify material. It is made up of polymers, which are large organic molecules composed of repeating carbon units or chains called monomers, such as ethylene, propylene, vinyl chloride and styrene.

Q5-what are synthetic mean?

Answer -The fibres which are produced chemically by human beings are called as synthetic fibres. Most of the synthetic fibres are obtained from coal, petroleum and natural gas. Nylon and rayon are two examples of synthetic fibres.

Q6-what are the two main types of plastic?

Answer- Thermoplastic and thermosetting
 As mentioned above, polymers that are classified as plastics can be divided into two major categories: thermoplastics and thermosets.

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