List of Mughal Emperors: Prominent names, timeline and more!

Safalta Expert Published by: Harshita Pathak Updated Sat, 11 Jun 2022 08:36 AM IST

Highlights

This empire was founded by Babur. The Battle of Panipat resulted in the establishment of the Mughal Empire. This empire had numerous kings, but the first six were the most powerful. They were responsible for the empire's rise to its pinnacle.

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Do you recall any Mughal legends from Indian history? The Mughal Emperors controlled India for nearly two centuries. The Mughals are significant figures in Indian history. They left behind various architectural landmarks, including the Red Fort and the Taj Mahal. The Mughal Empire was established as a result of the Battle of Panipat. There were many kings in this empire, but the first six were the most powerful. They were accountable for the empire's ascension to its pinnacle. If you are preparing for competitive exams and looking for expert guidance, you can download our General Knowledge Free Ebook Download Now. You may also check the free current affairs here!


A Brief History of the Mughal Emperors in India

Babur, the Mughal Empire's founder, was from Central Asia.

Source: amazon.com

He belonged to the Timurid dynasty, whose ancestors were Mongols from Central Asia. During his ancestor Timur the Lame's invasion of India in 1398, a powerful Mongol king of Central Asia called a widespread murder and looted the people cruelly. Babur followed in his ancestor's footsteps and moved to India. First, he fought the battle of Panipat against the governing king, Ibrahim Lodi, and defeated him. Following this, he founded the Mughal Empire in India.

List of Mughal emperors in India

There were a total of nineteen Mughal Emperors in India given below-
Emperor Full Name Birth Death
Babur Zahir-ud-din Muhammad 14th February 1483 26 December 1530
Humayun Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun 6th March 1508 27 January 1556
Akbar Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar 14th October 1542 27th October 1605
Jahangir Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim 20th September 1569 28th October 1627
Shah-Jahan Shahab-ud-din Muhammad khurram 5th January 1592 22nd January 1666
Alamgir I Muhy-ud-din Muhammad Aurangzeb 4th November 1618 3rd March 1707
Bahadur Shah Qutb-ud-din Muhammad Mu'azzam shah Alam 14th October 1643 27th February 1712
Jahandar Shah Mu'izz-ud-din Jahandar shah Bahadur 9th may 1661 12th February 1713
Farrukhsiyar Farrukhsiyar 20th August 1685 29th April 1719
Rafi ud-Darajat Rafi ud-Darajat 30th November 1699 9th June 1719
Shah Jahan II Rafi ud-Daulah June 1696 19 September 1719
Muhammad Shah Roshan Akhtar Bahadur 17th August 1702 26th April 1748
Ahmad Shah Bahadur Ahmad Shah Bahadur 23rd December 1725 1st January 1775
Alamgir II Aziz-ud-din 6th June 1699 29 November 1759
Shah Jahan III Muhi-ul-millat 1711 1772
Shah Alam II Ali Gauhar 25th June 1728 19th November 1806
Muhammad shah Bahadur Jahan IV Bidar Bakhat 1749 1790
Akbar Shah II Mirza Akbar 22nd April 1760 28th September 1837
Bahadur Shah II Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar 24th October 1775 7th November 1862
 

Six Prominent Mughal Emperors of India

However, there were nineteen Mughal Emperors, although the empire began to deteriorate after the sixth monarch. The following are the names of six famous Mughal Emperors:

1- Babur

He was the founder of the Mughal Kingdom or Empire and was born in 1483 in Andijan, Timurid Empire, as Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur. He was a descendant of Genghis Khan (Mongol monarch) and ruled Kabul, Samarqand, and Ferghana before coming to India. Babur arrived in India in the early 15th century with the intention of conquering the Punjab State, but quickly changed his mind and sought to conquer the entire nation. The Lodi dynasty ruled the Indian Subcontinent at the time. In 1526, he defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat. This resulted in the foundation of India's Mughal empire and the demise of the Delhi Sultanate.

From 1526 until 1530, he ruled as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. He died in 1530 in Agra.
Read the complete history of Babur here!

2- Humayun

He was the second Mughal Emperor to rule after Babur. In 1508 in Kabul, he was born as Nasir-ud-Din Muahammad to Maham Begum. Humayun has crowned Emperor of the Mughal Empire in 1530 and reigned until 1556. (15 years exile in between). He died in 1556, and Humayun's Tomb in Delhi is dedicated to him.

 

3- Akbar

He succeeded Humayun as the third Mughal Emperor. In 1542, he was born as Jalal-ud-din Muhammad to Hamida Banu Begum in Amarkot, Rajputana. Akbar became Emperor in 1556 and reigned till 1605. To extend his domain, Akbar invaded Punjab, Delhi, Agra, Rajputana, Gujarat, Bengal, Kabul, Kandahar, and Baluchistan. He is in charge of stabilising the economy and implementing the administrative system in India. His government was organised into four sections: military, household, religion, and revenue. He aided the farm industry and the people of his territory by providing tax breaks and loans.

He has a lifelong fascination with Mughal architecture. Buland Darwaza, Humayun's Tomb, Jodhabai Palace, and Akbar's Tomb were all erected by him. Akbar died at Agra in 1605.

4- Jahangir

He succeeded Akbar as the fourth Mughal Emperor. Jahangir was born at Fatehpur Sikri in 1569 as Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim to Jodha Bai. He has crowned Emperor in 1605 and reigned until 1627. He promoted Persian culture within the Mughal Empire. Jahangir set out to take control over South India. He was able to conquer Khandesh and a portion of Ahmadnagar. He also defeated Bundela of Rajputana and erected the Jahangir Mahal to commemorate his triumph. Jahangir was an opium addict and frequent drinker. He was a big fan of books and art. During his reign, Mughal artwork achieved its pinnacle. He is in charge of the construction of Shalimar Bagh, the Begum Shahi Mosque, and the Bachcha Taj.

5- Shah Jahan

He was Jahangir's son by a Hindu Rani Jagat Gosain, also known as Manavati Bai. During his reign, Mughal architecture was at its pinnacle, with Shah Jahan constructing one of the Seven Wonders of the World, the Taj Mahal. His attachment to this monument was so strong that he, like his predecessor, ordered the hands of all 20000 workers who constructed it to be severed so that another monument like it could never be created again. He also constructed other well-known structures such as the Moti Masjid in Pakistan and the Shish Mahal in India. Shah Jahan, also recognised as the finest commander of the army in all Mughal emperors and empires throughout his reign, was the wealthiest and strongest of all Mughal emperors and empires. Taj Mahal serves as the tomb for both Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan. He died in 1666 in Agra.

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6- Aurangzeb

He succeeded Shah Jahan as the sixth Mughal Emperor. Aurangzeb was born in Dahod in 1618 as Mu al-Dn Muammad to Mumtaz Mahal. He has crowned Emperor in 1658 and reigned until 1707. He was the first Mughal Emperor to take the throne prior to the death of the previous king, and he ruled practically the whole Indian subcontinent. Aurangzeb seized control of Bihar and Assam in the southern states. He and Shivaji fought for Bijapur in the Mughal–Maratha Wars. He was an official for the imperial government. During his reign, Hindus comprised 31% of the Mughal nobility. His main consort was Dilras Banu Begum, and he was succeeded by Bahadur Shah I. He died at Ahmednagar in 1707. He was the Mughal Emperor's final and most powerful ruler.

You can also read this article even in Hindi!

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