Charging by Induction- Positive and Negative Charges

Safalta Expert Published by: Noor Fatima Updated Tue, 11 Oct 2022 01:47 PM IST

Highlights

Here is important and relevant information regarding Class 12 Physics Concept of Charging By Induction? Read the article to learn about types of supplying charges and other information.  

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Charging with Induction- Positive and Negative Charge: Most materials are electrically neutral in nature. It depicts that they have an equal number of positively charged elements and negatively charged elements viz protons and electrons. To supply a charge to an object, one had to modify the balance charge of positive and negative charges. There are three approaches for supplying charge to an uncharged object. These are Charging by Conduction, Charging by Induction, and Charging by Friction. Charging by Conduction deals with supplying a charge to material by putting it in contact with a charged one.

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In this way, the charges are dispersed from the charged object to the conductor. This approach is helpful for supplying charge to conductors. Charging by Induction deals with charging a material without actually keeping it in contact with another charged material. This approach is used where the charged object is placed near an uncharged conductive object, grounded on a charged material that is neutral in nature. The charge flows between two materials, and the uncharged conductive object receives the charge with opposite polarity. Charging by Friction deals with rubbing one object on another, causing the electrons to move from one area to another. This approach is helpful for Charging insulators

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Table of Content
Charging by Conduction 
Charging by Induction
Charging by Friction
Charging by Induction using a negatively charged element
Charging by Induction using a positively charged element
Charging of Electroscope by Induction 
Basic Principles

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Charging by Conduction 

Charging by Conduction deals with supplying a charge to material by putting it in contact with a charged one. In this way, the charges are dispersed from the charged object to the conductor. This approach is helpful for supplying charge to conductors.
 

Charging by Induction

Charging by Induction deals with charging a material without actually keeping it in contact with another charged material. This approach is used where the charged object is placed near an uncharged conductive object, grounded on a charged material that is neutral in nature. The charge flows between two materials, and the uncharged conductive object receives the charge with opposite polarity.

 

Charging by Friction

Charging by Friction deals with rubbing one object on another, causing the electrons to move from one area to another. This approach is helpful for Charging insulators. 

Also read:
Electric Charge
Conductors and Insulators
Basic Properties of Electric Charge
Forces between Multiple Charges
Electric Field Due to Point Charge
 

Charging by Induction using a negatively charged element

Here, we shall look into the transmission of charge by Induction using a negatively charged element. Let us assume two metal spheres A and B in contact with each other. Let us take a negatively charged rubber balloon. If we bring the charged balloon in contact with the spheres, the negatively charged elements viz electrons within the two-sphere system will be enticed to repel the balloon diet to the repulsion between the electrons of the spheres and the balloon. 

As a result, the negatively charged element electrons from sphere A get transmitted to sphere B. The transfer of electrons makes sphere A become positively charged, and the sphere acquires a negative charge.

The overall two-sphere system becomes electrically neutral in nature. The spheres are then separated with the help of an insulating cover such as gloves. However, remember to avoid direct contact with the metal. When we remove the balloon, the charge gets retransmitted, scattering throughout the spheres.
 

Charging by Induction using a positively charged element

Here we shall learn about the transmission of charge through the procedure of induction using a positively charged element viz proton. Taking to spheres A and B keeps them in contact with each other. If we bring a positively charged balloon near sphere A, the negatively charged elements from sphere B will move toward sphere A due to the pull between opposite charges. Therefore, it makes sphere B less number of the negatively charged element.

Subsequently, sphere A is negatively charged, and sphere B is positively charged. The spheres are then detached with the help of an insulating cover such as gloves. When the balloon is eliminated,  the charge gets redistributed in spheres A and B, scattering out evenly. 
 

Charging of Electroscope by Induction 

An electroscope is a tool that is used to find the presence and degree of electric charges on an element or body. An electroscope is frequently used by physics teachers to describe the electrostatic norms of charging and charge relationships.


The explanation of the process of charging by induction is frequently done within an electroscope.  In this explanation, a charged object is placed close to the electroscope but not touching it. The negatively charged element in the electroscope is enticed to make movement due to the presence of the charged object above the plate of the instrument. 


Basic Principles from Charging Of Electroscope by Induction
The charged object placed on the plate is touched with the electroscope. Here, the electrons make movement between the electroscope and the ground allowing the electroscope to attain an overall charge.

The needle of the electroscope turns aside, depicting an overall charge when the charged object is repelled. From this explanation, we can summarise the following basic principles-
  • The element being charged by induction never touches the charged object. 
  • The Charged element does not transmit negatively charged elements or attain them from the element being charged.
  • The element being charged stay in contact with the ground. Negatively charged elements are transmitted between the ground and the object being charged.
  • The charged elements serve to polarize the element being charged. 
  • The element being charged eventually attain a charge that is contrary to that of the charged element used to polarise it.
The application of charging by induction can be categorized into high-power and low-power segments. High-power applications include charging batteries of power levels above 1 kilowatt. On the other hand, low-power applications usually include computers, phones, handheld gadgets, and other devices with a charge at power levels below 100 watts.

The most well-known application is the charging of electric vehicles, where automatic and wireless inductive charging is provided as a substitute for plug-in charging.
Refer to the information given above about Charging by Induction with Positive and Negative Charges. 

What is Charging by Induction?

Charging by Induction deals with charging a material without actually keeping it in contact with another charged material. This approach is used where the charged object is placed near an uncharged conductive object, grounded on a charged material that is neutral in nature. 

What is Charging by Friction?

Charging by Friction deals with rubbing one object on another, causing the electrons to move from one area to another. This approach is helpful for Charging insulators. 

What is Charging by Conduction?

Charging by Conduction deals with supplying a charge to material by putting it in contact with a charged one. In this way, the charges are dispersed from the charged object to the conductor. This approach is helpful for supplying charge to conductors.

What is an electroscope?

An electroscope is a tool that is used to find the presence and degree of electric charges on an element or body. An electroscope is frequently used by physics teachers to describe the electrostatic norms of charging and charge relationships.

What is electromagnetic induction?

The production of emf in a condition is because of the rate of change of current in a surrounding conductor without any electrical connection.

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