Syllogism, Key Concepts, Solved Examples and Exapert Tips Here!

Safalta Expert Published by: Saksham Chauhan Updated Sun, 23 Oct 2022 08:55 PM IST

Highlights

A syllogism is a deductively based three-part logical argument in which two premises are joined to get a conclusion. The conclusion will be true if the syllogism's premises are true and the syllogism is appropriately organised. A syllogism, for example, is "All mammals are animals."Get more information here at Safalta.com.

Syllogism is an important topic for all one-day exams. It is an integral part of all the aptitude questions papers. It is a part of logical reasoning. By hardcore deformation, syllogism is deductively based three-part logical argument in which two premises are joined to get a conclusion. Generally, all the examinations like - UPSC CSAT, IBPS, SBI, etc have questions on syllogism. The candidates preparing for various examinations must have a clear understanding and grasp of all the syllogism concepts and examples.  The space below will hep to enhance your understanding about the syllogism questions and topi

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What is the definition of syllogism?

The word "syllogism" comes from the Greek word "syllogismos," which literally means "conclusion, inference." Syllogisms are a type of logical argument that uses deductive reasoning to reach a conclusion. Aristotle is credited with making the most significant contribution to the field of syllogisms.

The questions in this part include two or more assertions, each of which is followed by two or more conclusions. It is necessary to determine which of these conclusions follows logically from the provided statements.

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Even if the assertions appear to contradict generally held beliefs, they must be considered as true.

Solving syllogism issues can be done in a variety of ways. A Venn diagram is the most effective and efficient approach of all. Drawing all feasible diagrams based on the supplied assertions and then solving each of these diagrams independently is required. Finally, the right solution is the one that is common to all of the diagrams.

 

Questions and answers:

 

Question 1:

In the following question, two statements are given each followed by two conclusions I and II. You have to consider the statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follows from the given statements.

Statements:

(I) Some polynomials are linear equations.
(II) Some linear equations are quadratic . 

Conclusion:

(I) Polynomials are quadratic.

(II) Linear equations are quadratic.

Option 1: Conclusion I follows

Option 2: Conclusion II follows 

Option 3: Neither I nor II follows

Option 4: Both I and II follows

Answer: 3: Neither I nor II follows

Explanation:

The venn diagram for above statements is :

Conclusion:

(I) Polynomials are quadratic = false

(II) Linear equations are quadratic = false Thus, neither I nor II follows

 

Question 2 :

In the following question, two statements are given each followed by two conclusions I and II. You have to consider the statement to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follows from the given statements.

Statements:

(I) All birds are trees.

(II) Some trees are hens. 

Conclusion:

(I) Some birds are hens. 

(II) Some hens are trees.

Option 1: Conclusion I follows 

Option 2: Conclusion II follows

Option 3: Neither I nor II follows

Option 4: Both I and II follows

Answer: 2: Conclusion II follows

Explanation:

The venn diagram for above statements is :

Conclusion:

(I) Some birds are hens = false (II) Some hens are trees = true Thus, only conclusion II follows

 

Question 3:

In each of the following question below are given some statements followed by some conclusions. Taking the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts, read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusion logically follows the given statements.

Statements:I. Some pens are glass.
II. All glass are wall.

Conclusions:I. Some wall are pens.
II. Some wall are glass.

Option 1: Only conclusion (I) follows

Option 2: Only conclusion (II) follows

Option 3: Both conclusion follow

Option 4: Neither conclusion (I) nor conclusion (II) follows

Answer: 3: Both conclusion follow

Explanation:

 

Question 4:

In the question two statements are given, followed by two conclusions, I and II. You have to consider the statements to be true even if it seems to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follows from the given statements.

Statement I: No rings are bangles
Statement II: All gold are rings

Conclusion I: No bangles are gold
Conclusion II: Some rings are gold

Option 1: Only conclusion I follows

Option 2: Only conclusion II follows

Option 3: Both conclusions I and II follow

Option 4: Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

Answer: 3: Both conclusions I and II follow

Explanation:

The venn diagram for above statements is :

Conclusion I: No bangles are gold = true

 Conclusion II: Some rings are gold = true 

Thus, both conclusions I and II follow.

 

Question 5:

In the following question, two statements are given each followed by two conclusions I and II. You have to consider the statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follows from the given statements.

Statements:

(I) All dogs are rats.

(II) Some rats are lizards.

Conclusion:

(I) Some dogs are lizards. (II) Some lizards are dogs.

Option 1: Conclusion I follows 

Option 2: Conclusion II follows 

Option 3: Neither I nor II follows 

Option 4: Both I and II follows

Answer: 3: Neither I nor II follows

 

Question 6:

In the question two statements are given, followed by two conclusions, I and II. You have to consider the statements to be true even if it seems to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follows from the given statements.

Statement

I: Some beverages are juices II: No drinks are beverages

Conclusion

I: Some juices are drinks.

 II: No beverages are juices

Option 1: Only conclusion I follows

Option 2: Only conclusion II follows

Option 3: Both conclusions I and II follow

Option 4: Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

Answer: 4: Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

Explanation 

Conclusion I: Some juices are drinks = may or may not be true Conclusion II: No beverages are juices = false

Thus, neither conclusion, I nor conclusion II follows.

 

Question 7

In the question two statements are given, followed by two conclusions, I and II. You have to consider the statements to be true even if it seems to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follows from the given statements.

Statement I: Some burgers are fast foods 

Statement II: Some sandwiches are burgers

Conclusion I: No fast foods are sandwiches

 Conclusion II: Some fast foods are burgers

Option 1: Only conclusion I follows

Option 2: Only conclusion II follows

Option 3: Both conclusions I and II follow

Option 4: Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

Answer: 2: Only conclusion II follows

Explanation:

Conclusion I: No fast foods are sandwiches = may or may not be true

 Conclusion II: Some fast foods are burgers = true

Thus, only conclusion II follows.

 

Question 8:

In the question two statements are given, followed by two conclusions, I and II. You have to consider the statements to be true even if it seems to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follows from the given statements.

Statement I: Some papers are tabloids 

Statement II: No magazines are papers

Conclusion I: No tabloids are magazines 

Conclusion II: All magazines are tabloids

Option 1: Only conclusion I follows

Option 2: Only conclusion II follows

Option 3: Both conclusions I and II follow

Option 4: Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

Answer: 4: Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

Explanation:

Conclusion I: No tabloids are magazines = may or may not be true

 Conclusion II: All magazines are tabloids = false

Thus, neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

 

Question 9:

Two statements are given followed by three conclusions numbered I, II and III. Assuming the statements to be true, even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts, decide which of the conclusions logically follow(s) from the statements.

Statements:

No ball is a pen.

All pens are boxes. 

Conclusions:

I. Some boxes are pens.

 II. Some boxes are balls. 

III. No box is ball.

Option 1: All conclusions follow

Option 2: Either conclusion II or III follows

 Option 3: Only conclusion I follows

Option 4: Conclusion I and either II or III follows

Answer: 4: Conclusion I and either II or III follows

Explanation:

Hence it is true that I. Some boxes are pens. follows. Whereas,

II. Some boxes are balls. -- Independently false

III. No box is ball.-- Independently false

But either of them is true.

 

Question 10:

In each of the following question below are given some statements followed by some conclusions. Taking the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts, read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusion logically follows the given statements.

I. Some pens are cups

.II. No cups are plates.

 Conclusions:

I. Some pens are not plates.

II .All pens are plates.

III. Some plates are not pens.

Option 1: Either conclusion (I) or (III) follow 

Option 2: Only conclusion (I) follows

Option 3: Only conclusion (II) and (III) follow

 Option 4: No conclusion follows

Answer: 1: Either conclusion (I) or (III) follow

Explanation:

 

Conclusions:

I. Some pens are not plates = may or may not be true

 II. All pens are plates = false

III. Some plates are pens = may or may not be true

Thus, either conclusion (I) or (III) follow.

 

Question 11 :

In the following question, two statements are given each followed by two conclusions I and II. You have to consider the statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follows from the given statements.

Statements:

(I) All dogs are bullocks.

 (II) All bullocks are goats.

Conclusion:

(I) All dogs are goats. 

(II) All goats are dogs.

Option 1: Conclusion I follows

Option 2: Conclusion II follows 

Option 3: Neither I nor II follows 

Option 4: Both I and II follows

Answer: 1: Conclusion I follows

Explanation:

The venn diagram for above statements is :

Conclusion:

(I) All dogs are goats = true

(II) All goats are dogs = false Thus, only conclusion I follows

Question 12 .

In the following question, two statements are given each followed by two conclusions I and II. You have to consider the statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follows from the given statements.

Statements:

(I) All pilots are brave men.

 (II) All astronauts are pilots.

Conclusion:

(I) All astronauts are brave men. 

(II) Some pilots are astronauts.

Option 1: Conclusion I follows

 Option 2: Conclusion II follows 

Option 3: Neither I nor II follows 

Option 4: Both I and II follows

Answer: 4: Both I and II follows

Explanation:

Conclusion:

(I) All astronauts are brave men = true 

(II) Some pilots are astronauts = true 

Thus, both I and II follows

Question 13:

In the question two statements are given, followed by two conclusions, I and II. You have to consider the statements to be true even if it seems to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follows from the given statements.

Statement I: Some games are sports 

Statement II: No exercise are games

Conclusion I: All sports are exercise

 Conclusion II: Some exercise are sports

Option 1: Only conclusion I follows

 Option 2: Only conclusion II follows

Option 3: Both conclusions I and II follow

Option 4: Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

Answer: 4: Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

Explanation:

The venn diagram for above statements is :

Conclusion I: All sports are exercise = false

Conclusion II: Some exercises are sports = may or may not be true.

 Thus, neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows.

 

Question 14:

In each of the following question below are given some statements followed by some conclusions. Taking the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts, read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusion logically follows the given statements.

Statements:

I Some pens are pencils.

II All pencils are erasers

III Some erasers are cups

 Conclusions

I Some pens are cups.

II Some pencils are cups.

III Some cups are pencils. 

IV Some erasers are pens.

Option 1: Only conclusion (II) follows 

Option 2: Only conclusion (IV) follows

Option 3: Only conclusion (I) follows 

Option 4: No conclusion follows

Answer: 2: Only conclusion (IV) follows

Explanation: 

 

Conclusions:I. Some pens are cups = false

 II. Some pencils are cups = false

III. Some cups are pencils = false

IV. Some erasers are pens = true

Thus, only conclusion (IV) follows.

 

 

Question 15:

In the question two statements are given, followed by two conclusions, I and II.You have to consider the statements to be true even if it seems to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follows fromthe given statements.

Statement I: All mobiles are phones
Statement II: All phones are devices

Conclusion I: Some phones are devices
Conclusion II: No devices are phones

Option 1: Only conclusion I follows

Option 2: Only conclusion II follows

Option 3: Both conclusions I and II follow

Option 4: Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

Answer: 1: Only conclusion I follows

Explanation:

The venn diagram for above statements is :

Conclusion I: Some phones are devices = true 

Conclusion II: No devices are phones = false Thus, only conclusion I follow.

 

Question 16:

In the question two statements are given, followed by two conclusions, I and II.You have to consider the statements to be true even if it seems to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follows from the given statements.

Statement I: Some pizzas are pancakes
Statement II: All bread are pizzas

Conclusion I: All pancakes are bread
Conclusion II: No bread are pizzas

Option 1: Only conclusion I follows

Option 2: Only conclusion II follows

Option 3: Both conclusions I and II follow

Option 4: Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

Answer: 4: Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

Explanation:

The venn diagram for above statements is :

Conclusion I: All pancakes are bread = false Conclusion II: No bread are pizzas = false

Thus, neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows.

 

Question 17:

In the question two statements are given, followed by two conclusions, I and II.You have to consider the statements to be true even if it seems to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follows from the given statements.

Statement I: No umbrellas are raincoats
Statement II: Some jackets are umbrellas

Conclusion I: All raincoats are jackets
Conclusion II: All jackets are raincoats

Option 1: Only conclusion I follows

Option 2: Only conclusion II follows

Option 3: Both conclusions I and II follow

Option 4: Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

Answer 4 :Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

 Explanation:

Question 18 :

In the following question, two statements are given each followed by two conclusions I and II. You have to consider the statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follows from the given statements.

Statement:

(I) Kids rejoice with toys and toys give them new opportunities to think in various ways.

(II) Toys are non-living things that create a virtual world around kids to think and perceive in various ways.

Conclusions:

(I) If children don't play with toys some part of the personality is underdeveloped.

(II) Toys are a mandatory and non detachable part of their personality.

Option 1: Only conclusion II follows 

Option 2: Conclusion I and II both follow 

Option 3: Neither I nor II follow

Option 4: Only conclusion I follows

 

Answer: 3: Neither I nor II follow

Explanation:

The given statements indicate that kids rejoice with toys and that they give them new opportunities to think in various ways, they also create a virtual world around kids to think and perceive in various ways. It does not mean that the children's personality will be under developed if they don't play with them, neither does it mean that toys are mandatory for the kids. Thus, neither of the conclusions follows.

 

Question 19 :

In the question two statements are given, followed by two conclusions, I and II. You have to consider the statements to be true even if it seems to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follows from the given statements.

Statement I: No bikes are two:wheelers
Statement II: All wheels are bikes

Conclusion I: No two:wheelers are wheels
Conclusion II: All wheels are two:wheelers

Option 1: Only conclusion I follows

Option 2: Only conclusion II follows

Option 3: Both conclusions I and II follow

Option 4: Neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows

Answer: 1: Only conclusion I follows

Explanation:

 

Question 20 :

In the following question, two statements are given each followed by two conclusions I and II. You have to consider the statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follows from the given statements.

Statement:

(I) India's GDP continues to grow at one of the reasonable rates but job creation is not picking up the similar pace.

(II) Every year over 20 million young Indians join the workforce.

Conclusions:

(I) Population increase is more than the job creation rate.

(II) Supply basket is less and the demand basket for jobs is very high.

Option 1: Only conclusion II follows 

Option 2: Conclusion I and II both follow 

Option 3: Neither I nor II follow

Option 4: Only conclusion I follows

Answer:2: Conclusion I and II both follow

 Explanation:

Conclusion one which states that rate of increase of India's population is more that the job creation rate definitely follows the first statement. Also, second conclusion is also similar to the first one, hence it also follow, since India's GDP continues to  grow at one of the reasonable rates but job creation is not picking up the similar pace. Thus, conclusion I and II both follow.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 

What are the techniques of syllogism?

Syllogism Tricks and Tips
  • Always pay attention to words like 'some', 'a few', 'all', 'atleast', etc. These words form the base to solve the syllogism questions.
  • The best syllogism trick is to solve questions in the form of Venn diagrams. ... 
  • Never assume anything while solving the syllogism questions.

What is the purpose of syllogism?

A syllogism (SILL-uh-jiz-um) is a type of deductive reasoning that presents a major premise and a minor premise to guide the reader towards a valid conclusion. Syllogisms are a component of rhetoric commonly seen in formal arguments, which means they can also be a powerful persuasive tool.

What is the effect of syllogism?

Studies of syllogistic reasoning have demonstrated a nonlogical tendency for people to endorse more believable conclusions than unbelievable ones. This belief bias effect is more dominant on invalid syllogisms than valid ones, giving rise to a logic by belief interaction.

Are syllogisms always valid?

Form and Validity
Thus, the specific syllogisms that share any one of the 256 distinct syllogistic forms must either all be valid or all be invalid, no matter what their content happens to be. Every syllogism of the form AAA-1is valid, for example, while all syllogisms of the form OEE-3 are invalid.

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