118 Elements, their Symbols, and Atomic Numbers, Know their Importance and Usage

Safalta Expert Published by: Trisha Bharati Updated Thu, 06 Oct 2022 08:44 PM IST

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Here is the information regarding 118 Elements, their Symbols, and Atomic Numbers. Read the complete blog to know the Periodic Table, Symbols, and the 118 elements. 

118 Elements, Their Symbols, and Atomic Numbers: The Periodic Table of Elements is one of the most popular concepts in the field of Chemistry. It assists in understanding and looking for chemical elements. Professionals, Scientists, Teachers, and students associated with the chemistry field broadly use it. Dimitri Mendeleev, well-known by the name 'Father of the Periodic Table, was the first person to prepare the Periodic table and present it in front of the entire World. It uses the concept of the atomic mass of the elements. When he discovered the first periodic table, it did not provide us with all the important and required information regarding the elements. Additionally, the ones known were not sufficient and accurate. Henry Moseley, an English Physicist, has put forth the latest Periodic Table, which obeys Henry Moseley’s modern periodic law.

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This periodic law states that the features of Elements are the periodic functions of their atomic numbers. There are 118 Elements in the Period Table. Read the complete blog to learn more about the Periodic Table, its features, Symbols, Derivations of Symbols, Valency of Elements, Atomic numbers, and other information. 

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Table of Content

Important Features of the Periodic Table
What is the Symbol of an Element?
How are Symbols Derived?
Valency of an Element
Atomic Number
Table of 118 Elements— Symbols and Atomic Numbers

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Important Features of the Periodic Table

  • Elements are organized in increasing order, i.e., increasing atomic number
  • A particular symbol represents Elements of the Periodic Table. The entire name is not used to denote them because the name and nature of some elements can be long and complex.
  • Elements are organized in horizontal and vertical formats. Those arranged vertically are called ‘Groups’, and the ones horizontally are called ‘Periods’.
  • The remaining elements are arranged according to periodic characteristics and trends. For instance, Soft metals are placed in group 1A due to their high reactivity with water.

What is the Symbol of an Element?

A symbol is a sign, code, or character that represents a chemical element. It usually has one to two letters. Some have three letters, which denote newly synthesized elements, while some are given that designation temporarily.

How are Symbols Derived?

The symbols are generally drawn by using either the first or first two letters from the English name of the elements. On the other hand, some symbols are evolved from their Latin or Greek names.

Let’s learn from some examples.

  • Gold is known by its Latin name Aurum. So it is represented by the symbol ‘Au’.
  • Similarly, Iron is denoted by its first two Latin words ‘Fe’ (Ferum).


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Valency of an Element

In order to attain the steadiest arrangement i.e., of a noble gas, the atom of an object makes efforts to acquire or displace electrons. This aptitude of an atom to attain or displace the negatively charged element (electron) to reach a steady configuration or static gas arrangement is referred to as the Valency of an element. The number of the negatively charged element (electron) in the outermost shell is known as valence electrons, and the outermost shell is called the valence shell.

The number of electrons in the valence shell establishes the valency of an object. It is significant to know the atomic number and electronic arrangement of an element to find out its valency.

Atomic Number

The notion of atomic number can be comprehended when you are well-versed with what the elements are made from. A single sort of atom helps evolve an element. An atom is the tiniest and unbreakable unit of matter, which contains electrons, protons, and neutrons. The nucleus, the centre of the atom, is positively charged and contains protons and neutrons. Protons are positively charged. Neutrons remain neutral. Therefore, they are chargeless. Electrons, the negatively charged component surrounds the nucleus.

The atomic mass of an element is the total sum of protons and neutrons. The atomic number is the sum of protons present in the centre of the atom, i.e., the nucleus, and is represented by the letter Z. The number of protons present in the nucleus determines the chemical characteristics of elements. This raises the need to get well-familiarized with atomic numbers and understand the chemistry of elements.
 
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Table of 118 Elements— Symbols and Atomic Numbers

Name of the Element

Symbol of the Element

Atomic Number

Hydrogen

H

1

Helium

He

2

Lithium

Li

3

Beryllium

Be

4

Boron

B

5

Carbon

C

6

Nitrogen

N

7

Oxygen

O

8

Fluorine

F

9

Neon

Ne

10

Sodium

Na

11

Magnesium

Mg

12

Aluminium

Al

13

Silicon

Si

14

Phosphorus

P

15

Sulfur

S

16

Chlorine

Cl

17

Argon

Ar

18

Potassium

K

19

Calcium

Ca

20

Scandium

Sc

21

Titanium

Ti

22

Vanadium

V

23

Chromium

Cr

24

Manganese

Mn

25

Iron

Fe

26

Cobalt

Co

27

Nickel

Ni

28

Copper

Cu

29

Zinc

Zn

30

Gallium

Ga

31

Germanium

Ge

32

Arsenic

As

33

Selenium

Se

34

Bromine

Br

35

Krypton

Kr

36

Rubidium

Rb

37

Strontium

Sr

38

Yttrium

Y

39

Zirconium

Zr

40

Niobium

Nb

41

Molybdenum

Mo

42

Technetium

Tc

43

Ruthenium

Ru

44

Rhodium

Rh

45

Palladium

Pd

46

Silver

Ag

47

Cadmium

Cd

48

Indium

In

49

Tin

Sn

50

Antimony

Sb

51

Tellurium

Te

52

Iodine

I

53

Xenon

Xe

54

Cesium

Cs

55

Barium

Ba

56

Lanthanum

La

57

Cerium

Ce

58

Praseodymium

Pr

59

Neodymium

Nd

60

Promethium

Pm

61

Samarium

Sm

62

Europium

Eu

63

Gadolinium

Gd

64

Terbium

Tb

65

Dysprosium

Dy

66

Holmium

Ho

67

Erbium

Er

68

Thulium

Tm

69

Ytterbium

Yb

70

Lutetium

Lu

71

Hafnium

Hf

72

Tantalum

Ta

73

Tungsten

W

74

Rhenium

Re

75

Osmium

Os

76

Iridium

Ir

77

Platinum

Pt

78

Gold

Au

79

Mercury

Hg

80

Thallium

Tl

81

Lead

Pb

82

Bismuth

Bi

83

Polonium

Po

84

Astatine

At

85

Radon

Rn

86

Francium

Fr

87

Radium

Ra

88

Actinium

Ac

89

Thorium

Th

90

Protactinium

Pa

91

Uranium

U

92

Neptunium

Np

93

Plutonium

Pu

94

Americium

Am

95

Curium

Cm

96

Berkelium

Bk

97

Californium

Cf

98

Einsteinium

Es

99

Fermium

Fm

100

Mendelevium

Md

101

Nobelium

No

102

Lawrencium

Lr

103

Rutherfordium

Rf

104

Dubnium

Db

105

Seaborgium

Sg

106

Bohrium

Bh

107

Hassium

Hs

108

Meitnerium

Mt

109

Darmstadtium

Ds

110

Roentgenium

Rg

111

Copernicium

Cn

112

Nihonium

Nh

113

Flerovium

Fl

114

Moscovium

Mc

115

Livermorium

Lv

116

Tennessine

Ts

117

Oganesson

Og

118

 

Final Thoughts 

Only 98 of the 118 elements—those with atomic numbers ranging from 1 (hydrogen) to 98 (californium; see periodic table)—are found in nature; the other elements are created in labs using the naturally occurring elements.

What are the names of the 118 elements?

The periodic table of the elements, whose evolution followed the rules of the periodic law, is the only visual representation of all 118 elements and one of the key contributions to modern chemistry.


 

Is fire an element?

Fire is not an element since it is composed of several distinct chemicals. Most of the time, fire is a combination of hot gases. A chemical interaction, typically between oxygen in the air and a fuel like wood or propane, results in flames.

What element name is the longest?

Rutherfordium, which bears the name of the well-known New Zealand physicist Lord Ernest Rutherford, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, wins the award for having the longest element name. The word "praseodymium," which translates to "green twin," refers to the uncertainty surrounding the purported element didymium.

What element has the most strength?

The Most Powerful Element Of All: Water. Water is the most potent element.

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