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Table of Content
|Class 11 biological classification overview|
|Viruses, Viroid, Prions, and Lichens|
|Class 11 biological classification: Important questions|
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Class 11 biological classification OverviewThe recognition of properties among living organisms and grouping them on the basis of their characteristics is called biological classification. The study of the classification of living organisms is significant because it helps us-
- To know the origin and development of the classified species
- To recognize new organisms and subdivide them easily
- To study only one or two species under each category to understand the common characteristics of the group. In the absence of proper classification, it would be difficult to study each and every species by itself
- To understand the correlation among various groups of organisms
Kingdom MoneraThe bacteria found almost everywhere around fall under the category of Kingdom Monera.
- Bacteria can live in intense weather conditions and can be found in deep oceans, snowy areas, and Hot Springs. They can even survive on other living organisms, such as parasites.
- The bacteria have a very simple structure; however, their behavior is difficult to understand.
- They are grouped on the basis of their shape: rod-shaped Bacillus (bacilli), spherical Coccus (cocci), spiral Spirillum (spirilla), and comma-shaped Vibrium (vibrio).
- Bacteria are either heterotrophic or autotrophic. Heterotrophic bacteria rely on other living organisms or dead organisms for food. On the other hand, Autotrophic bacteria can make their own food from inorganic substances.
- The archaebacteria are exceptional bacteria because of their cell wall structure. Methanogens are a type of these bacteria that live in the gut of ruminating animals.
- The eubacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms that are single called and are called true bacteria. They can make their own food. Moreover, some play significant roles, such as recycling nutrients, helping milk curdle, fixing nitrogen in the roots of legumes, and others.
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- They are single-celled eukaryotic microorganisms and are found in aquatic regions.
- They have a well-defined nucleus and cell structure membranes from their cell body.
- Some types of Protista have flagella and cilia.
- With the help of cell fusion and the development of zygotes, they can reproduce sexually and asexually.
Protista Kingdom is further divided into some categories as per the class 11 biological classification chapter.
- Slime Moulds
Kingdom PlantaeKingdom Plantae organisms have chlorophyll and are capable to prepare their own food.
- Being Eukaryotes, the cells in Kingdom Plantae organisms are shielded in a nuclear envelope and are composed of cellulose.
- The insectivorous plants and parasites are excluded and are partially heterotrophic in nature.
- The Kingdom Plantae usually consist of bryophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperms, algae, and pteridophytes.
- The organisms falling under this Kingdom have two life cycle phases named diploid gametophyte phase and haploid sporophyte phase.
Kingdom FungiFungi can be found in water, plants, air, soil, animals, and water according to the Class 11 biological classification chapter. Some of the major properties of this Kingdom are as follows-
- Most fungi are multicellular, with yeast as an exclusion
- They are heterotrophic organisms and obtain their food from dead and decayed matter.
- Organisms falling under this Kingdom have a thread-like structure called hyphae. Moreover, these are long and slim.
- A set-up of hyphae creates the mycelium.
- The subdivision of fungi comprises ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes, Phycomycetes, and basidiomycetes.
Kingdom AnimaliaAs per the Class 11 biological classification chapter, organisms falling under the Kingdom Animalia cannot prepare their own food, so are heterotrophic in nature.
- The nucleus is shielded in a nuclear envelope, as they are eukaryotes.
- These organisms are multi-cellular but don’t have a cell wall.
- Organisms under Kingdom Animalia rely upon plants for food directly or indirectly.
- Their digestion takes place in a cavity inside the body, and they stock up on food in glycogen or fat form.
- The organisms under Kingdom grow in a pattern in which animals develop into adults with exact size, shape, and structure.
- These organisms have detailed neuromotor and sensory mechanisms.
Viruses, Viroid, Prions, and LichensThe five kingdoms explained above according to the Class 11 biological classification chapter do not specify the division of some acellular organisms like Viroid, Viruses, Lichens, and Prions.
VirusesViruses are non-cellular organisms having nucleic acid covered by a coat of protein. They have genetic materials, either DNA or RNA. However, these genetic materials are not present together. Viruses cause multiple diseases in plants and animals.
ViroidViroid is a new infectious organism smaller than the virus. They lack a coat of protein or RNA.
PrionPrions are similar to viruses and have oddly folded proteins. They can result in causing neurological diseases such as CR Jakob disease and mad cow disease.
LichensLichens have a mutual relationship with fungi and algae. The fungi form is mycobiont, which ate heterotrophic in nature. On the other hand, the algae form is phycobiont, which is autotrophic in nature.
Class 11 biological classification: Important questionsNow that we have learned the different kingdoms and classifications according to Biology, let's have a look at some most important questions for the chapter
How have biological classification systems undergone changes over a period of time?
- What are the characteristics of heterotrophic bacteria and archaebacteria?
- Elaborate on how viroids differ from viruses.
- Explain four important groups of Protozoa.
- Name some plants that are partly heterotrophic.
- What is the basis of dividing living organisms into its five-kingdom classification?
How many Kingdoms are there in Class 11 biological classification Chapter?
Name the 5 Kingdoms in Class 11 biological classification.
- Kingdom Monera
- Kingdom Plantae
- Kingdom Fungi
- Kingdom Animalia
- Kingdom Protista
What are Heterotrophic Organism?
What are Autotrophic Organism?
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