Important Economic terms related to Union Budget: Know About it here!

Safalta expert Published by: Gitika Jangir Updated Tue, 01 Feb 2022 10:12 AM IST


Check Important Economic terms related to Union Budget and questions related to it here at

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From the year 2016, the Union Finance Minister presents the Union Budget, commonly known as the Annual Financial Statement, on the 1st of February. It contains the finance bill as well as the appropriation bill, both of which must be passed by the Indian Parliament by April 1. The Union Budget contains a number of economic topics that may be challenging for IAS Exam candidates to comprehend. This article will explain the meaning of economic words found in the Union Budget that UPSC aspirants should be familiar with. Prior to that, a fundamental comprehension of the Union Budget will be taught.


Candidates can learn about 15 terms typically found in news connected to the Indian economy in addition to these significant economic terms seen in the Budget. If you are preparing for competitive exams and are looking for expert guidance, you can check out our daily FREE Current Affairs.  Also,  download our app- 'Exam Taiyari App' and boost your preparation.  FREE GK EBook- Download Now.

Table of content 

  1. Important Economic terms related to Union Budget 
  2. About Union Budget 
  3. Important Economic Terms and Their Meanings in Relation to the Union Budget
  4. 15 terms relevant to Indian economics 
  5. Important questions related to Union Budget

Important Economic Terms Related to Union Budget

On February 1 at 11 a.m., Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman will deliver the Union Budget 2022. The Economic Survey will be presented to Parliament the day before, on January 31. The FM is expected to discuss financial indicators such as the fiscal deficit, inflation, disinvestment, revenue revenues, capital spending, and more when delivering the budget. Here are some crucial economic phrases to be aware of when preparing your budget.

What is Union Budget ?

According to Article 112 of the Indian Constitution, the annual Union Budget, also known as the annual financial statement, is a declaration of the government's expected receipts and expenditures for that year.

Union Budget 2019-20 emphasised on the points given :

  1. It focus on Agriculture and Rural economy.
  2. GDP growth pegged at 7.6 percent.
  3. It focus on cutting plan expenditure to control fiscal deficity is not a good sign.
  4. It emphasis on rural economy is a positive step, as history has shown us that it was a rural economy that insulated India from the recession of 2009.
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Important Economic Terms and Their Meanings in Relation to the Union Budget

The table below will provide you with a list of all the key phrases linked to and used in the Union Budget:
Economic Term Meaning
Annual Financial Statement It includes the Indian government's receipts and expenditures. The Consolidated Fund of India, the Contingency Fund of India, and the Public Accounts are all covered. (Learn more about the many sorts of funding available in India here.)
Revenue – Receipt & Expenditure
  • Revenue Receipt:
  1. Receipts received that the government is unable to retrieve 
  2. It includes income earned by the government from taxes and non-tax sources such as interest and investment dividends.
  • Revenue Expenditure:
  1. Expenses incurred by the Union Government that are not related to the establishment of physical or financial assets. 
  2. It covers expenses for the day-to-day operations of federal ministries, grants to state governments, and interest payments on the Union Government's debt, among other things.
Capital – Receipt & Expenditure
  • Capital Receipt:
    • Receipts which generate liability or decrease the financial assets of the government
    • It includes borrowings from the Reserce bank of India and commercial banks and other financial institutions
    • It also consists of loans received from foreign governments and international organization and repayment of loans granted by the Union government
  • Capital Expenditure:
    • Spending incurred by the government which results in the formation of physical or financial possessions of the Union government or decrease in financial liabilities of the Union Government.
    • It contains expenditure on procuring land, equipment, infrastructure, expenditure in shares.
    • It also includes mortgages by the Union government to Public Sector Undertakings, state and union territories
Corporation Tax
  • Tax on profits of companies
Direct Tax
  • Taxes which are imposed directly on individual and company
  • It comprises income tax and corporation tax
Indirect Tax
  • Taxes which are imposed on goods and services
  • It comprises taxes like service tax, excise taxes, and customs duties
Fiscal policy 
  • The policy of the government
  • Fiscal policy is the means by which a government adjusts its expenditure levels and tax rates to monitor and influence a country’s economy.
Revenue Deficit
  • It is the additional expenditure of government over revenue receipts
Fiscal Deficit
  • It is the difference between the total expenditure of the government and its total receipts, not including the borrowing.
Primary Deficit
  • Fiscal deficit – interest payments = Primary Deficit
Non-Tax Revenue
  • Government revenue not generated from taxes.
  • Examples of non-tax revenue:
    • Aid from another level of government ((intragovernmental aid): in the United States, federal grants may be considered non-tax revenue to the receiving states, and equalization payments; Aid from abroad (foreign aid) etc
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Monetary value of all finished goods and services made within a country during a specific period

UPSC aspirants should be familiar with the following 15 terms relevant to Indian economics.

Important Economic Terms Seen in News (Important for IAS Exam)
Economic Terms Meaning
Statutory Liquid Ratio (SLR) Reserve requirement that commercial banks are required to maintain in the form of cash, gold reserves, Reserve Bank of India- approved securities before providing credit to the customers
Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) is a specified minimum fraction of the total deposits of customers, which commercial banks have to hold as reserves either in cash or as deposits with the central bank. CRR is set according to the guidelines of the central bank of a country
Marginal Cost of Fund based Lending Rate (MCLR) Marginal Cost of Funds based Lending Rate (MCLR) is the minimum lending rate below which a bank is not permitted to lend
Repo Rate (RR) Repo rate is the rate at which the central bank of a country (Reserve Bank of India in case of India) lends money to commercial banks in the event of any shortfall of funds.
Reverse Repo Rate (RRR) Reverse Repo rate is the rate at which the Reserve Bank of India borrows funds from the commercial banks in the country
Wholesale Price Index (WPI) An index that measures and tracks the changes in the price of goods in the stages before the retail level – that is, goods that are sold in bulk and traded between entities or businesses instead of consumers. 
Consumer Price Index  (CPI) Measure that examines the weighted average of prices of a basket of consumer goods and services, such as transportation, food, and medical care. 
Foreign Institutional Investor An investor or investment fund registered in a country outside of the one in which it is investing
Manufacturing Activity Manufacturing, processing, testing, packaging, storing and other activities undertaken or required to be undertaken by CRL or its suppliers in order to manufacture and supply Client with the Drug Product
Foreign Direct Investment An investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country
Monetary Policy Policy adopted by the monetary authority of a country that controls either the interest rate payable on very short-term borrowing or the money supply, often targeting inflation or the interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency
Base Effect Distortion in a monthly inflation figure that results from abnormally high or low levels of inflation in the year-ago month
Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF) A tool used in monetary policy, primarily by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), that allows banks to borrow money through repurchase agreements (repos) or for banks to make loans to the RBI through reverse repo agreements.
Marginal Standing Facility (MSF) The penal rate at which banks can borrow money from the central bank over and above what is available to them through the LAF window.
Index of Industrial Production (IIP) Index for India which details out the growth of various sectors in an economy such as mineral mining, electricity and manufacturing.

Important questions related to Union Budget :

Q1.What is the significance of the federal budget? 

A. One of the fundamental goals of budgeting is to keep the government's earnings and spending under control. Budgets are a crucial aspect of keeping a government's finances under control, as well as a means of accomplishing the financial reporting goal of accountability.

Q2.  What is Deficit in Revenue ?

A. When the government's net revenue expenditures exceed revenue receipts, a revenue deficit occurs. This is one of the most important measures of whether the government is spending too much of its regular revenue.

Q3 .What are the different parts of the government's budget? 

The Revenue Account, which contains Revenue Receipts (Tax and Non-Tax Revenue) and Revenue Expenditure, is the first part of the government budget (Plan Revenue Expenditure and Non- Plan Revenue Expenditure).

Q4. What is Direct tax ?

A. Direct taxes, which include income tax and corporation tax, are one of the most essential components of the budget. These taxes are imposed on a company's or an individual's income or wealth. Fringe benefit tax, securities transaction tax, and banking cash transaction tax are all types of income taxes.

Q5. What is the government budget's primary goal? 

Economic growth – promoting quick and balanced economic growth in order to improve people's living standards – is the primary goal of a government budget.

Q6 . What is  Capital Revenue and Expenditure ?

 A. Capital expenditure (capex) is the money spent by the government to acquire, maintain or upgrade its assets. It includes the government’s long-term expenditure towards developmental and infrastructural projects. These expenses are not recurring in nature.
Capital revenue is the amount received by the government from sale of assets. The government prepares a revenue budget with respect to funds, giving details of revenue receipts and revenue expenditure; and a capital budget, which gives the capital receipts and capital expenditure.

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