Differences between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha: Read Complete Details !

Safalta expert Published by: Gitika Jangir Updated Tue, 10 May 2022 11:32 PM IST

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Clear all your queries related to Lok Sabha vs Rajya Sabha here with Safalta. Get to know the differences between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha , functions and important questions related to it .

The political structure in India is federal, which means there are two levels of government. The Union Government and the State Government are the two sections. Bicameralism dates back to 1919, when the Government of India Act was passed. Learn about the differences between the two houses of Parliament in the article below. 
Parliament of India . The Indian Parliament is made up of three houses: the President, the Lower House (Lok Sabha), and the Upper House (Rajya Sabha) . (Rajya Sabha) 
The House of People is also known as the Lok Sabha, and the Council of States is known as the Rajya Sabha. The Lok Sabha (Lower House) and Rajya Sabha (Upper House) are the two houses of parliament (Upper House.) The House of People is known as the Lok Sabha, while the Council of States is known as the Rajya Sabha. The Indian Parliament adopted the names 'Lok Sabha' and 'Rajya Sabha' in 1954. The Indian Parliament is addressed in Article 79-122 of the Indian Constitution. The two chambers of parliament differ in many ways, hence this topic 'Difference between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha' is crucial for the IAS Exam and its three phases - Prelims, Mains, and Interview. This article will mention the differences between Lower House i.e. Lok Sabha and the upper house i.e. the Rajya Sabha.  If you are preparing for competitive exams and are looking for expert guidance, you can check out our monthly FREE Current Affairs E-book- Download Now. Also,  download our app- 'Exam Taiyari App' and boost your preparation. FREE GK EBook- Download Now.
 

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TABLE OF CONTENT

  1. Difference between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha 

  2. Houses of Parliament

  3. Functions of Lok Sabha

  4. Functions of Rajya Sabha 

  5. Important questions related to the differences between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha 

 


Difference between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha 

The following table summarises the significant distinctions between the upper and lower houses of Parliament:

Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha
Known as the People's House  Known as the Council of States 
It is dissolvable.  It is a permanent body since it cannot be dissolved.
Direct elections allow eligible voters to choose their representative.  Comprised of elected legislators from the Assemblies of States and Union Territories who are indirectly elected. 
Lok Sabha is headed by the Speaker     The Speaker of the Lok Sabha is also the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. 
The lower house's strength is 552.  The upper house has a strength of 250 members.
The Lok Sabha has the authority to reject a money bill.  The Rajya Sabha has the authority to defend the rights of states against the Union, but it cannot reject a money bill. 
The minimum age to join is 25 years old.  To become a member, you must be 30 years old. 
The Lok Sabha has the power to express no confidence in the government,  Rajya Sabha has no power to express no confidence
In the Annual Budget, the Lok Sabha can vote on grant requests.  In the case of the budget, the Rajya Sabha has no voting power and can simply debate.
If the Anglo-Indian Community is underrepresented, the President can designate two members.  The president names 12 members with expertise and practical experience in the arts, literature, science, and social service.
The method of election employed is the Universal Adult Franchise.  The election method utilised is Proportional Representation by Single Transferable Vote.

IMPORTANT :

Only Delhi, Jammu Kashmir, and Puducherry are represented in the Rajya Sabha out of all the Union Territories. The Rajya Sabha is the lower chamber of Parliament, and every two years, a third of its members retire.  Another thing to remember is that the Council of Ministers is only accountable to the Lok Sabha, not the Rajya Sabha.
 

Houses of Parliament

Take a look at the following explanations. The Indian Parliament is divided into two chambers: the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.

LOK SABHA 

The Lower House of the Lok Sabha has a total of 552 members. 

Seating breakdown- 

The States are represented by 530 members. The Union Territories are represented by 20 people. 
The President additionally nominates two members from the Anglo-Indian Community. 
Only 13 members represent the Union Territories, hence there are only 545 members in total. 
Through the adoption of the 104th Constitutional Amendment Act 2019, the nomination of two anglo Indians in the Lok Sabha was removed. 


RAJYA SABHA 


The Upper House of the Rajya Sabha has 250 members. 

Seating breakdown

States and Union Territories are represented by 238 members who were indirectly elected. The President nominates 12 members. The current membership is 245 members, with 233 members from states and UTs and 12 members of nomination.

Functions of Lok Sabha:

Legislative powers of the Lok Sabha: The Lok Sabha has the power to pass bills and laws affecting states and union territories. When a bill is passed by two-thirds of the members of parliament in an emergency, the bill is only valid for one year. Other bills, aside from money bills, can be passed by either the Rajya Sabha or the Lok Sabha. In the event that these government entities are unable to reach an agreement, the President of India will intervene. In terms of legislative power, the Lok Sabha outnumbers the Rajya Sabha.

Financial Issues: Members of the Lok Sabha introduce Money Bills. When the Lok Sabha passes a bill, it is forwarded to the Rajya Sabha for approval and suggestions. If the proposed modifications are agreed by members of the Lok Sabha, the bill would be passed by both houses of parliament. The Rajya Sabha has a 14-day deadline to make the requested adjustments. 

Elections: In terms of elections, Article 54 of the Indian Constitution serves numerous purposes. The Lok Sabha chooses its own speaker, who is also a member of the lower house.

Miscellaneous:

  • The Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha alter the Indian Constitution. 
  • Both houses of parliament have the power to appoint and dismiss judges from the High Court and Supreme Court. 
  • The Rajya Sabha must have the consent of the members of the Lok Sabha in order to remove the Vice-President. 
  • Every decision taken by the Rajya Sabha must be approved by the Lok Sabha.

Functions of Rajya Sabha :

  • The Rajya Sabha is the Indian parliament that represents all of India's states and union territories. 
  • To become legislation, a bill must pass both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. 
  • The Rajya Sabha has the power to examine and amend bills that have been passed by the Lok Sabha. 
  • Representatives or elected members of the assemblies of several states elect the members. 
  • The Rajya Sabha currently has 300 members, 12 of whom are appointed by the President of India.

Important questions related to the differences between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha :

When an aspirant learns about the Indian Parliament for the first time, he or she may become perplexed as to the differences in composition, tenure, and functions between the two chambers. Below, we'll answer all of your queries about the distinctions between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha reading, so that you may prepare mentally for the UPSC 2020 exam. 

The following are the questions:


Q . Between the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, who is the most powerful?


 A. The Parliament is made up of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha, as well as the President. Powers have been granted on both houses. However, there is a minor difference in their abilities. On the following issues, the Lok Sabha has more power than the Rajya Sabha:
  • The Lok Sabha has the ability to express dissatisfaction with the government in ways that the Rajya Sabha does not: 
  1. By failing to pass a motion of gratitude for the President's inauguration address and rejecting an appropriation bill (To read on how a bill is passed in Indian Parliament, check the linked article.) 
  2. By passing a motion of censure or adjournment 
  3. By outsmarting the government on a crucial subject, Performing a cut motion 
 Important : The Rajya Sabha, on the other hand, has the power to criticise the government's actions and policies.
  • Only the Lok Sabha can introduce a money bill under Article 110. (In the linked article, aspirants can learn more about Money Bill.)
  • Only the Lok Sabha can introduce a financial bill under Article 110 (1). 
  • However, with the approval of the bill, the powers remain the same. 
  • The Speaker of the Lok Sabha determines whether bills are Money Bills, whereas the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha does not have this authority. 
  • When both chambers meet in a combined session, the Lok Sabha with the greater number of members invariably wins. 
  • When it comes to the union budget, the Rajya Sabha can only debate it and not vote on grant requests.
 

Q. How many members are there in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha?

A. The composition of both the houses is given below:
 

Composition of Lok Sabha Composition of Rajya Sabha
Maximum Strength – 552 530 represent the States Maximum Strength – 250 238 elected indirectly and are representatives of States and Union Territories
20 are the representatives of Union Territories 12 are nominated by the President
2 are nominated by the President from Anglo-Indian Community Current strength – 245 233 represent states and Union Territories
Current Strength – 545 530 represent States
13 represent Union Territories 12 are nominated by President
2 are nominated by the President from Anglo-Indian Community
 

Q.How are members elected in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha?

A.Both houses have different election principles. In both houses, there are three types of representation: 

  • Representation of States
  • Representation of Union Territories
  • Nominated Members
 
 

Difference between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha w.r.t Representation of States

Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha
  • Members are elected directly by the people in the states' territorial constituencies. 
  • The Universal Adult Franchise was utilised as the election principle. 
  • Any Indian citizen above the age of 18 is eligible to vote.
  • Note: Voting age was reduced from 21 to 18 years by the 61st Constitutional Amendment Act, 1988
  • Members are elected by the elected members of state legislative assemblies
  • Election Principle used – Proportional Representation by means of Single Transferable Vote
  • Allotment of Seats – On the basis of population

Note: Number of representatives varies from state to state

 

Difference between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha w.r.t Representation of Union Territories

Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha
  • Parliament is empowered to choose the members from the UTs in any manner as it desires
  • Election Principle used – Direct Election

NoteUnion Territories (Direct Election to the House of the People) Act, 1965, has been enacted by which the members of Lok Sabha from the union territories are chosen by direct election.

  • Members are indirectly elected by members of an electoral college specially constituted for the purpose
  • Election Principle used – Proportional Representation by means of Single Transferable Vote

Note: Out of eight UTs, Delhi, Jammu & Kashmir, and Puducherry have representation in Rajya Sabha

 

Difference between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha w.r.t Representation of Nominated Members

Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha
President nominates 2 members from Anglo-Indian Community if they are not adequately represented

 

Note: The provision to nominate Anglo-Indians was extended till 2020 by 95th Amendment Act, 2009

President nominates 12 members from people who special knowledge and practical experience in :

 

  • Art
  • Literature
  • Science
  • Social Service
 

Q.How many members are nominated in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha?

A. 12 members are nominated in Rajya Sabha. 2 are nominated from the Anglo-Indian community in Lok Sabha.

Q.Who chairs Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha?

A. Lok Sabha is chaired by the Speaker and Rajya Sabha is chaired by the Vice-President of India.
 

 
 

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Is Lok Sabha bigger or Rajya Sabha?

In conclusion, it is clear that the Lok Sabha is more powerful than the Rajya Sabha in almost all matters. Even in those matters in which the Constitution has placed both Houses on an equal footing, the Lok Sabha has more influence due to its greater numerical strength.

Who picks India's Prime Minister? 

The president of India appoints the prime minister; but, the prime minister must have the support of a majority of Lok Sabha members, who are directly elected every five years, or he will resign.

A governor is appointed by whom? 

The President appoints the Governor of a State for a five-year term and keeps office during his pleasure. Only Indian citizens over the age of 35 are eligible to hold this position. The Governor has executive power over the state.

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