Morley-Minto Reforms were one of the most significant British policies.
They are also known as the Council of Indian Act (1909).
It was through the Morley-Minto Reforms that the British parliament limitedly increased Indian participation in the government of British India and the Indian Council Acts of 1861 and 1892 were amended.
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Table of content
1.Historical Background of Morley-Minto Reforms (1909)
2.The Important provisions Morley-Minto Reform 1909
3.Importance of Morley-Minto Reform (1909)
4.Defect of Morley-Minto Reforms (1909)
The legislature's rational intentions were not fulfilled in the Indian Council Act of 1892.
Lord Curzon's partition of Bengal was carried out in 1905.
As a result, a large-scale rebellion broke out in Bengal.
After this, the British rulers realized that the Indian government needed improvement.
The Indian National Congress (INC) also promoted further reforms and autonomy for India.
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Previous Congressional leaders were moderates, but now there are a growing number of radical leaders who believe in more confrontational tactics.
In 1906, the INC demanded autonomy for the first time.
In England, Gopal Krishna Gokhale met with Morley and discussed the importance of change.
Simla Deputation met Lord Minto in 1906 and presented another voter proposal for Muslims led by Aga Khan.
John Morley was a member of the liberal government of India and sought to improve the governance of the country.
The Council of India Act of 1909 was passed, gaining moderates and Muslims in the Indian National Assembly. Its purpose is to apply electoral principles to membership in India's imperial and local legislative councils and increase Indian participation in the British Indian government.
The Main Provisions of The Legislative Council have grown in size at both the federal and state levels.
The Central Legislative Council is made up of people aged 16 to 60.
The Bengal, Madras, Bombay, and United States Legislative Councils each consist of 50 members.
He has 30 members in the Legislative Councils of Punjab, Burma, and Assam.
Members of the State Legislative Council are elected by local governments through the Electoral College.
These individuals elect members of the Central Legislative Council.
Those elected included local governments, chambers of commerce, landlords, universities, trade organizations, and Muslims.
The majority of state legislators were informal.
Overall, however, a few informal members were nominated, so a majority was not elected.
The Imperial Legislative Council welcomed Native Americans for the first time.
Muslims have their own constituencies.
Only Muslims were allowed to vote in some seats, and only Muslims could vote for representatives.
Budgets are discussed and resolutions may be proposed.
They can also discuss the issues that are important to the general public.
And also inquire further about the topic.
They could not discuss foreign policy or relations with the monarchy.
Sinha was appointed (after much pressure from Morley) as the first Indian member to serve on the Governor's Executive Council.
He was joined by two Indians on the Secretary of State's Council on Indian Affairs.
Members of the federal and state legislative councils were divided into four different groups, first is the members of the Executive Council and the Governor-General are ex-officio.
Second, the members are nominated by the Governor: The Governor appointed a government official.
Third, a member is appointed by the governor-general rather than a government official.
And fourth various Native American groups elected representatives to the board.
This was a step forward towards responsible ties between elected Indians and the administration.
For the first time, members had the opportunity to criticize their leaders andmake suggestions for better administration of the country.
Another constituency was created to widen the gap between Muslims and Hindus.
In Indian politics, this system has ushered in an era of shameless communism.
While the Council has grown in size, its functions and powers have not.
Local councils had an informal majority, but the election of nominated members nullified the informal majority, so the outcome was irrelevant.
The law had no effect on the governor or veto power.
Members were able to discuss budgets, but not make significant changes.
They could ask questions, but they couldn't force leaders to act on resolutions that were like recommendations to the government.
The Marley Minto reforms diverted attention from the political and economic difficulties that affect all Indians, Hindus, and Muslims alike.
Hence, it is concluded that the Indian Council Act of 1909 was passed to persuade moderates and Muslims in the Indian National Assembly.
Their aim was to apply electoral principles to membership in India's imperial and local legislative councils.
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