The Indian Constiution is the lengthiest written Constitution in the world. It has different Parts, Schedules and Artciles which list various rules as per which the country must be governed. There are a total of 470 articles in the Indian Constitution. Originally the Indian Constiution contained a Preamble, 395 Articles and 8 Schedules. Presently it consists of a Preamble, 465 Articles and 12 Schedules. Indian Polity is a important section in all the competitive exams. Candidates must be aware about various articles and schedules of the Indian Constitution. In this article, we have explained the various important articles of the Indian Constitution.
Articles In The Indian Constitution
There are 25 Parts of the Indian Constitution which contain 465 articles. The different Parts, what they relate to and the Articles they contain are as follows:
|Part Of the Indian Constitution
||Subject the Part Relates To
||Union & Its Territory
||Directive Principles of State Policy
|Part IV A
||Note: 7th Amendment Act, 1956 repealed Part 7
|Part IX A
|Part IX B
||Scheduled and Tribal Areas
||Relation between Union & States
||Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits
||Trade, Commerce and Intercourse within the territory of India
||Services under the Union and States
|Part XIV A
||Special Provisions relating to certain classes
||Amendment of the Constitution
||Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions
||Short title, Commencement, Authoritative Text in
Hindi and Repeals
The different important Articles of the Indian Constitution and what they are about is as follows:
PART 1 - Article 1 to 4
- Article 1 – Name and territory of the union.
- Article 2 – Admission and establishment of the new state.
- Article 3 – Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and name of existing states.
PART 2- Article 5 to 11
- Article 5 – Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution.
- Article 6 – Rights of citizenship of a certain person who has migrated to India from Pakistan.
- Article 10 – Continuance of rights of citizenship.
- Article 11 – Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.
PART 3- Article 12 to 35
- Article 12 – Definition of the state.
- Article 13 – Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.
Fundamental Rights and Related Articles of the Indian Constitution
Our Constitution provides citizens with Fundamental Rights which are justiciable. Originally there were seven Fundamental Rights, now there are only six of them. The Right to Property was removed as a Fundamental Right by the 44th Amendment Act, 1978.
Right to Equality: Article 14 to 18
Right to Freedom: Article 19 to 22
- Article 14 – Equality before the law.
- Article 15 – Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth.
- Article 16 – Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
- Article 17 – Abolition of the untouchability.
- Article 18 – Abolition of titles.
Right Against Exploitation: Article 23 and 24
- Article 19 – Guarantees to all the citizens the six rights and they are:
- a – Freedom of speech and expression.
- b – Freedom to assemble peaceably and without arms.
- c – Freedom to form associations or unions.
- d – Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India.
- e – Freedom to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
- f – Omitted
- g – Freedom to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.
- Article 20 – Protection in respect of conviction for offences.
- Article 21 – Protection of life and personal liberty.
- Article 22 – Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.
Right to Freedom of Religion: Article 25 to 28
- Article 23 – Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.
- Article 24 – Prohibition of employment of children (Under the age of 14) in factories and mines.
Cultural and Educational Rights: Article 29 and Article 30
- Article 25 – Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.
- Article 26 – Freedom to manage religious affairs.
- Article 27 – Freedom as to pay taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
- Article 28 – Freedom from attending religious instruction.
Right to Constitutional Remedies: Article 32
- Article 29 – Protection of interest of minorities.
- Article 30 – Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
- Article 32 – Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.
PART 4- Article 36 to 51 - Directive Principles of State Policy
- Article 36 – Definition
- Article 37– Application of DPSP
- Article 39A – Equal justice and free legal aid
- Article 40 – Organization of a village panchayat
- Article 41 – Right to work, to education, and to public assistance in certain cases
- Article 43 – Living Wages, etc. for workers.
- Article 43A – Participation of workers in the management of industries.
- Article 44 – Uniform Civil Code.
- Article 45 – Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
- Article 46 – Promotion of educational and economic interest of scheduled castes (SC), scheduled tribes (ST), and OBC.
- Article 47– Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.
- Article 48 – Organization of agriculture and animal husbandry.
- Article 49 – Protection of monuments and places and objects of natural importance.
- Article 50 – Separation of judiciary from the executive.
- Article 51 – Promotion of international peace and security.
PART 4 A- Article 51 A- Fundamental Duties
There are a total of 11 Fundamental Duties in the Indian Constitution as of now. It was the 42nd Amendment Act 1976 that added the tenth Fundamental Duty and 86th Amendment Act, 2002 that added the eleventh Fundamental Duty.
PART 5- Article 52 to 151- Union
- Article 52 – The President of India
- Article 53 – Executive Power of the union
- Article 54 – Election of President
- Article 61 – Procedure for Impeachment of the President
- Article 63 – The Vice–president of India
- Article 64 – The Vice–President to be ex–officio chairman the council of States
- Article 66 – Election of Vice–president
- Article 72 – Pardoning powers of President
- Article 74 – Council of ministers to aid and advise President
- Article 76 – Attorney–General for India
- Article 79 – Constitution of Parliament
- Article 80 – Composition of Rajya Sabha
- Article 81 – Composition of Lok Sabha
- Article 83 – Duration of Houses of Parliament
- Article 93 – The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people
- Article 105 – Powers, Privileges, etc. of the House of Parliament
- Article 109 – Special procedure in respects of money bills
- Article 110 – Definition of “Money Bills”
- Article 112 – Annual Financial Budget
- Article 114 –Appropriation Bills
- Article 123 – Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament
- Article 124 – Establishment of Supreme Court
- Article 125 – Salaries of Judges
- Article 126 – Appointment of acting Chief justice
- Article 127 – Appointment of ad–hoc judges
- Article 128 –Attendance of retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court
- Article 129 – Supreme Court to be a court of Record
- Article 130 – Seat of the Supreme Court
- Article 136 – Special leaves for an appeal to the Supreme Court
- Article 137 – Review of judgment or orders by the Supreme Court
- Article 141 – Decision of the Supreme Court binding on all the courts
- Article 148 – Comptroller and Auditor– General of India
- Article 149 – Duties and Powers of CAG
- Article 153 – Governors of State
- Article 154 – Executive Powers of Governor
- Article 161 – Pardoning powers of the Governor
- Article 165 – Advocate–General of the State
- Article 213 – Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances
- Article 214 – High Courts for states
- Article 215 – High Courts to be a court of record
- Article 226 – Power of High Courts to issue certain writs
- Article 233 – Appointment of District judges
- Article 235 – Control over Subordinate Courts
PART 9- Article 243 to 243O- Panchayats
- Article 243A – Gram Sabha
- Article 243B – Constitution of Panchayats
PART 12- Article 264 to 300 A
- Article 266 – Consolidated Fund and Public Accounts Fund
- Article 267 – Contingency Fund of India
- Article 280 – Finance Commission
- Article 300 A – Right to property
PART 13- Article 301 to 307- Services Under Centre and State
- Article 312 – All– India–Service
- Article 315 – Public service commissions for the union and for the states
- Article 320 – Functions of Public Service Commission
PART 14A- Articcle 323 A to Article 323 B
- Article 323A – Administrative Tribunals
PART 15- Article 324 to 329- Elections
- Article 324 – Superintendence, direction and control of Elections to be vested in an Election Commission
- Article 325 – No person to be ineligible for inclusion in or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste, or sex
- Article 326 – Elections to the house of the people and to the legislative assemblies of states to be on the basis of adult suffrage
PART 16- Article 330 to 342- Special Provisions for SC, ST, OBC, Minorities
- Article 338 – National Commission for the SC & ST
- Article 340 – Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes
PART 17- Article 343 to 351- Official Language
- Article 343 – Official languages of the Union
- Article 345 – Official languages or languages of a state
- Article 348 – Languages to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts
- Article 351 – Directive for development of the Hindi languages
PART 18- Article 352 to 360- Emergency
- Article 352 – Proclamation of emergency (National Emergency)
- Article 356 – State Emergency (President’s Rule)
- Article 360 – Financial Emergency
PART 19- Article 361 to 367
- Article 361 – Protection of President and Governors
PART 20- Article 368- Amendment of Constitution
- Article 368 – Powers of Parliaments to amend the constitution
PART 21- Article 369 to 392- Special, Transitional and Temporary Provision
- Article 370 – Temporary Provision for the erstwhile State of J&K (diluted on August 5 & 6, 2019).
- Article 371 A – Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland
- Article 371 J – Special Status for Hyderabad–Karnataka region
Articles Related to Emergency Provisions:
- Article 352: Proclamation of Emergency.
- Article 356: Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States
- Article 356: Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States
- Article 360: Financial Emergency
Articles for Centre
- Article 112: Annual financial statement for Union
- Article 113: Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates
- Article 114: Appropriation Bills
- Article 115: Supplementary, additional or excess grants
- Article 116: Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants
- Article 117: Special provisions as to financial Bills
- Article 118: Rules of procedure
- Article 119: Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business
- Article 120: Language to be used in Parliament.
- Article 121: Restriction on discussion in Parliament
- Article 122: Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament
- Article 123: Power of President to promulgate Ordinances
- Article 124: Establishment and constitution of Supreme Court
- Article 72: Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases
- Article 74: Council of Ministers to aid and advice President.
- Article 75: Other provisions as to Ministers
- Article 76: Attorney General for India
- Article 77: Conduct of business of the Government of India
- Article 78: Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc.
- Article 79: Constitution of Parliament
- Article 85: Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution
- Article 86: Right of President to address and send messages to Houses
- Article 88: Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects Houses
- Article 102: Disqualifications for membership
- Article 105: Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof
- Article 100: Voting in Houses, the power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum
- Article 111: Assent to Bills (President)
- Article 110: Definition of Money Bills
Articles For States
- Article 202: Annual financial statement for State
- Article 203: Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates
- Article 204: Appropriation Bills
- Article 205: Supplementary, additional or excess grants
- Article 206: Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants
- Article 207: Special provisions as to financial Bills
- Article 208: Rules of procedure
- Article 209: Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to financial business
- Article 210: Language to be used in Legislature
- Article 211: Restriction on discussion in the Legislature
- Article 212: Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Legislature
- Article 213: Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances
- Article 214: High Courts for States
- Article 161: Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases
- Article 163: Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor
- Article: 164: Other provisions as to Ministers
- Article 165: Advocate General for the State
- Article 166: Conduct of business of the Government of a State
- Article 167: Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor, etc.
- Article 168: Constitution of Legislatures in States
- Article 175: Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses
- Article 177: Rights of Ministers and Advocate-General as respects the Houses
- Article 192: Disqualifications for membership
- Article 194: Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Legislatures and of the members and committees thereof
- Article 189: Voting in Houses, the power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum
- Article 200: Assent to Bills (Governor)
- Article 199: Definition of “Money Bills” in State Legislature
All of these Articles are important for candidates preparing for competitve exams to know. These Articles cover important sections of Indian Polity. In order to memorise these Articles, candidates should endure that they keep revising them again and again and learn the articles by Parts of the Constitution.