Swachch Bharat Mission (SBM) : Know Complete Details here !

Safalta expert Published by: Gitika Jangir Updated Sat, 05 Feb 2022 09:09 AM IST


Check out the complete detail related to Swachch Bharat Mission (SBM).

The Swatchh Bharat Mission (SBM), Swatchh Bharat Abhiyan, or Clean India Mission, was launched by the Indian government in 2014 to eliminate open defecation and improve solid waste management across the country. It's a restructured version of the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, which was launched in 2009 but fell short of its goals. The campaign, launched by the Indian government, sought to make India "open-defecation free" (ODF) by October 2, 2019, the 150th anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi's birth[5], by constructing toilets. The official name of the campaign is in Hindi. It translates to "Clean India Mission" in English. Prime Minister Narendra Modi officially inaugurated the campaign on October 2, 2014 at Rajghat in New Delhi.

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With three million government personnel and students from all over India participating in 4,043 cities, towns, and rural villages, it is India's largest cleaning initiative to date.Read the article further to know more about The Swatchh Bharat Mission (SBM), Swatchh Bharat Abhiyan, or Clean India Mission.General Knowledge Ebook Free PDF: Download Here .

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Swatchh Bharat Mission (SBM)

The Swatchh Bharat Mission (SBM), Swatchh Bharat Abhiyan, or Clean India Mission, was launched by the Indian government in 2014 to eliminate open defecation and improve solid waste management across the country. It's a restructured version of the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, which was launched in 2009 but fell short of its goals.
It has 2 phase :
  • Phase 1 of the Swatchh Bharat Mission lasted till October 2019.
  • Phase 2 is being implemented between 2020–21 and 2024–25 to help cement the work of Phase 1
  1. The campaign, launched by the Indian government, sought to make India "open-defecation free" (ODF) by October 2, 2019, the 150th anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi's birth[5], by constructing toilets. During this time, an estimated 89.9 million toilets were constructed. [6] The initial part of the programme also includes eradicating manual scavenging, raising awareness and changing behaviour on sanitary measures, and increasing local capacity.
  2. The mission's second phase aims to maintain open defecation-free status and improve solid and liquid waste management while also aiming to improve sanitation employees' lifestyles.  The mission's goal is to go closer to objective 6.2 of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals Number 6, which was created in 2015.
There were two halves to the mission: rural and urban. The Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (since converted to the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation under the Ministry of Jal Shakti) was in charge of "SBM - Gramin" in rural regions, while the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs was in charge of "SBM - Urban." 
Volunteers known as Swatchhagrahis, or "Ambassadors of Cleanliness," pushed the installation of toilets at the village level using a popular method known as Community-Led Total Sanitation. National real-time monitoring and updates from non-governmental organisations such as The Ugly Indian, Waste Warriors, and SWACH Pune were among the other activities (Solid Waste Collection and Handling).

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Swatchh Bharat Mission (SBM): Structure


The mission's primary goals in the first phase were to minimise open defecation and enhance municipal solid waste management in both urban and rural regions. 
[requires citation] The goal was to eliminate open defecation by building individual family toilets (typically twin pit pour flush pit latrines), toilets, and public toilets. Cities were encouraged to prepare detailed project reports that are bankable and have a financial model in order to improve solid waste management. The second phase, on the other hand, concentrates on maintaining the first phase's gains while also enhancing solid and liquid waste management.


SBM was estimated to cost $28 billion. The government offers a $12,000 (US$160) reward for each toilet built by a rural home. In India's 2016 Union budget, a sum of 90 billion rupees (US$1.2 billion) was been aside for the purpose. In 2015, the World Bank gave the Swachh Bharat Mission a US$1.5 billion loan and $25 million in technical assistance to help India implement universal sanitation. This was supposed to be released in increments, subject to independent verification, however no payments have been disbursed as of January 2017. Several international organisations and private firms have also contributed cash and technical assistance to the programme as part of corporate social responsibility programmes, as well as the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan schemes.

Noteworthy actions 

  • As part of the cleaning campaign, Anushka Sharma and Vice President of India M V Naidu picked up a broom to help clean the cyclone-hit port city of Visakhapatnam in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh. 
  • In October 2014, Prime Minister Modi named a group of organisations as "brand ambassadors," including the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, Eenadu, and India Today, as well as Mumbai's dabbawalas, who carry home-cooked food to hundreds of thousands of people. [more clarification is required] On this occasion, nearly 3 million government personnel, as well as school and college students, took part in the effort. 
  • On October 2, 2014, the Rashtrapati Bhavan hosted a Swachh Bharat Run, which drew 1,500 participants. 
  • At the age of 106, Kunwar Bai Yadav, who resided in a village in the Dhamtari area, sold seven of her goats to gather money to build a toilet at her home. Prime Minister Narendra Modi paid her a visit and appointed her the campaign's mascot. 
  • A maker community in Chennai constructed Swachh Bot, a robot inspired by the Clean India Mission, to clean the rubbish on Besant Nagar beach.
  • Ravindra Kumar, an IAS officer of Uttar Pradesh cadre who first conquered Mount Everest in 2013, scaled the world's highest peak again on May 23, 2019, dedicated to Swachh Ganga Swachh Bharat Everest Abhiyaan. Kumar said he scaled the mountain to give a call to people of India from the top of the world towards the urgent need of controlling water pollution, saving rivers and other sources of water and ensuring availability of clean water to all.

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Planned Initiatives

The CPWD was given the task of disposing of rubbish from government offices by the government.  In all non-AC coaches, the Ministry of Railways planned to provide cleaning on demand, clean bed-rolls from automatic laundries, bio-toilets, and dustbins.  The Minister of Human Resource Development, Government of India, started the Swachh Bharat Swachh Vidyalaya campaign by participating in a cleanliness drive with the school's instructors and pupils.

Performance monitoring Of Swatchh Bharat Mission

People and government organisations are using the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) Mobile app to achieve the Swachh Bharat Mission's goals. The Indian government is doing this by using commercials to raise public awareness. In 2017, national sanitation coverage increased to 65 percent, up from 38.7% on October 2, 2014, when the programme began.  In August of 2018, it was 90%.  By September 25, 2019, 35 states/union territories, 699 districts, and 5.99 lakh (599,000) villages had been proclaimed Open Defecation Free (ODF).
The percentage of cities and towns that have been designated as ODF was 22%, while the percentage of urban wards that have achieved 100% door-to-door solid waste collection was 50%. The number of Swachhagrahi volunteers working throughout urban local governments has risen to 20,000, with more than 100,000 volunteers working in rural India. The number of schools having separate restrooms for girls increased from 0.4 million (37% to over one million) (91 percent).

Impact of Swatchh Bharat Mission

Impact 1: Clean Cities

Under the Swachh Bharat initiative, massive door-to-door garbage collection and disposal activities were initiated. This helped in addressing the problem of garbage disposal. According to the Swachh Survekshan, an annual survey of cleanliness, hygiene, and sanitation in cities and towns across India, Indore is the cleanest city in India for the fifth time in a row.

The success of Indore means other cities in the country are on the path of cleaner India too. Following Indore are Surat, Vijaywada, Navi Mumbai, and more. In 2020, Vijaywada occupied 6th place and moved up the list to 3rd place in 2021.

The nationwide month-long Clean India Drive, organized by the Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports in October 2021, aimed at collecting 75 lakh kgs of plastic and waste. In the first 10 days of the campaign, over 30 lakh kgs of waste were collected across the nation. Furthermore, the concept of waste to wealth is being promoted.

At present, according to the Swachh Bharat portal, the mission has seen participation from 51,344 people, 6,106 pakhwada activities have been undertaken, and more. The impact of the Abhiyan has been manifold- social, economic, and environmental.

Impact 2: Free of open defecation

According to the Ministry of Jal Shakti, under Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) [SBM(G)], all the 6,03,175 villages in the country have declared themselves Open Defecation Free (ODF) as of October 2, 2019. For this, over 100 million toilets were constructed in rural India. Further, the Government has advised all the States to ensure that none is left behind under SBM(G).

All urban local bodies have also been declared Open Defecation Free (ODF) and 70% of solid waste is now being processed scientifically.

Impact 3: Toilets in every household

Under SBM(G), 10.24 crore individual household latrines (IHHLs) were constructed from October 2, 2014, to December 31, 2019. The Government has approved Phase-II of SBM(G) for the period from 2020-21 to 2024-25, with the focus on ODF sustainability by providing access to toilets facilities to the newly emerging eligible rural households of the country and Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) in the villages.

Impact 4: Social Upliftment

In addition to clean and hygienic surroundings, the mission has also empowered and brought respect to the people involved in the process. In Paradeep, Odisha, transgenders and rag pickers have been actively involved in the waste management system. Be it the Prime Minister washing the feats of sanitation workers or employing rag pickers and transgenders, the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan has given new respect to the people, something which was missing earlier.

Present Scenario

Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0 (SBM-U 2.0) has been launched with the mission to make all the cities ‘Garbage Free’ and ensure grey and black water management in all cities other than those covered under AMRUT. Further, it aims to make all urban local bodies as ODF+ and those with a population of less than 1 lakh as ODF++, thereby achieving the vision of safe sanitation in urban areas.

The focus of the mission – source segregation of solid waste (being undertaken in Indore), utilizing the principles of 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle), scientific processing of all types of municipal solid waste, and remediation of legacy dumpsites for effective solid waste management.

The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is like a cycle, that connects every piece and its impact can be seen on rivers, households, the environment, and people’s life.


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