White Revolution : India's Milk Revolution

Safalta expert Published by: Gitika Jangir Updated Tue, 08 Feb 2022 11:21 AM IST


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The White Revolution, which began in 1970 by the Indian government, is considered to be one of the largest dairy movements in the world. Operation Flood is the name of the initiative that was started and eventually led to the white revolution. This project by the Indian government was innovative since it connected the country's milk producers and sellers with consumers in over 700 villages and cities. The white revolution's main goal was to make India self-sufficient in milk production. This effort aided in increasing the country's milk productivity, which was then sold at market prices.

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The white revolution boosted demand for dairy animals while also introducing contemporary technology to the business. Read the article to know about White Revolution in India. f you are preparing for competitive exams and looking for expert guidance, you can download our General Knowledge Free Ebook Download Now. 

White Revolution in India

White revolution in the Dairy Sector. It introduced a cooperative approach in harnessing milch animals husbandry and eliminating the middle man in the farmer market supply chain and enhancing milk production as well as profits to the farmers.

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It is also called Operation Flood. 
Dr. Verghese Kurien, the founder of Amul, the country's largest milk producer, is known as the "Father of the White Revolution." Dr. Verghese Kurien and H.M. Dalaya were also the first to develop a method for manufacturing milk powder from condensed buffalo milk. 
The white revolution was characterised by the adoption of new animal husbandry technologies and the alteration of feed ingredient composition. The revolution began with three key goals in mind: boosting milk production, raising rural income, and supplying milk to consumers at reasonable costs.
The white revolution was beneficial to India in several ways, including eliminating milk solids imports, modernising dairy industries and infrastructures, addressing dairy needs, and enhancing the genetics of milking animals through cross breeding.

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Phases of White Revolution

The white revolution was initiated in three phases— phase I, phase II and phase III.

  • Phase I (1970–1981) was the first phase of the project. The Dairy Development Programme was established in eleven states during this time to supply milk to the cosmopolitan cities of Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, and Chennai. 
  • Phase II (1981–1985) was the second phase of the project.  The dairy development initiative was expanded in Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan during this era. During this phase, a cluster of milk producers' unions was formed in 25 contiguous milk shed areas [in 155 districts]. To control cattle infections, the Hyderabad Research Institute created the 'Raksha' vaccination. Improvements in milk marketing were also made in 144 more cities around the country as part of the programme. Dairy cooperative organisations were established in 35000 villages, with a total membership of 36 lakhs.
  • Phase III (1985–2000) is the third phase of the project. A number of cooperative societies were established in most of the country's major states, bringing the total number of cooperatives to 1,35,439, with 14 million members. The increase in milk output in India is shown in Table 9.16.

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Objectives :

  • The cooperative society's main goals are milk procurement, transportation, and storage in chilling units. 
  • To supply feed for cattle. 
  • The production of a wide range of milk products, as well as their marketing. 
  • The societies also offer exceptional cattle breeds (cows and buffaloes), as well as health, veterinary, and artificial insemination services. 
  • To provide a service extension 
  • The White Revolution's technology is based on a vast network of cooperative groups. 
  • Milk is quickly transferred to the dairy factory at the milk chilling centre after being gathered at a local collection centre. 
  • The village society, truck operators, and timely conveyance to the dairy plants keep the collection schedule on track.
  • The chilling centres are run by producer cooperative unions to make it easier to collect milk from farmers who live far away from the chilling centres, eliminating the need for middlemen.

White Revolution : Achievements

  • White Revolution is as important to dairy development as Green Revolution has been to grain production. Its outcome is based on the improvement in cattle breeding and the adoption of new technology.
  • Today, India has earned the first position in milk production in the world.
  • Some of the important achievements of the White Revolution are as under:
    • The White Revolution made a sound impact on rural masses and encouraged them to take up dairying as a subsidiary occupation.
    • India has become the leading producer of milk in the world. The milk production that was about 17 million tonnes in 1950-51 rose to over 112 million tonnes in 2009-10. The production of milk has gone up by more than six times when compared with that of the Pre–Independence situation.
    • The per capita availability of milk per day at present is about 263 gm as against 125 grams before the white Revolution.
    • The import of milk and milk production has been reduced substantially.
  • White Revolution is as important to dairy development as Green Revolution has been to gram production. Its outcome is based on the improvement in cattle breeding and the adoption of new technology.
  • Today, India has earned the first position in milk production in the world.
  • The small and marginal farmers and the landless labourers have been especially benefitted from the White Revolution. About 14 million farmers have been brought under the ambit of 1,35,439 village-level dairy cooperative societies.
  • To ensure the success of the Operation Flood Program, research centres have been set up at Anand, Mehsana, and Palanpur (Banaskantha). Moreover, three regional centres are functioning at Siliguri, Jalandhar, and Erode.
  • Livestock Insurance Scheme was approved in February 2006 and in 2006-07 on a pilot basis in 100 selected districts across the country. The scheme aims at protecting the farmers against losses due to the untimely death of animals.
  • To improve the quality of livestock, extensive cross-breeding has been launched.
  • For ensuring the maintenance of disease-free status, major health schemes have been initiated.
  • The government implemented livestock insurance on a pilot basis in 2005-06.

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