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Table of Content
Following is the Marks Distribution for Class 12 Economics syllabus.
|Part A||Introductory Macroeconomics||40|
|1||National Income and Related Aggregates||12|
|2||Money and Banking||06|
|3||Determination of Income and Employment||10|
|4||Government Budget and the Economy||06|
|5||Balance of Payments||06|
|Part B||Indian Economic Development||40|
|6||Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991||12|
|7||Current Challenges facing Indian Economy||22|
|8||Development Experience of India - A Comparison with Neighbours||06|
What is Macroeconomics?
- Basic concepts in macroeconomics: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation.
- Circular flow of income (two sector model); Methods of calculating National Income - Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method.
- Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Net Domestic Product (NDP) - at market price, at factor cost; Real and Nominal GDP.
- GDP and Welfare
- Meaning and functions
- Supply of money - Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks.
- Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue, Govt. Bank, Banker's Bank, Control of Credit through Bank Rate, CRR, SLR, Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement.
- Aggregate demand and its components.
- Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal).
- Short-run equilibrium output; investment multiplier and its mechanism.
- Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.
- Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them - changes in government spending, taxes and money supply.
- Government budget - meaning, objectives and components.
- Classification of receipts - revenue receipts and capital receipts;
- Classification of expenditure – revenue expenditure and capital expenditure.
- Balanced, Surplus and Deficit Budget – measures of government deficit.
- Balance of payments account - meaning and components
- Balance of payments – Surplus and Deficit
- Foreign exchange rate - meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating.
- Determination of exchange rate in a free market, Merits and demerits of flexible and fixed exchange rate.
- Managed Floating exchange rate system
- A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence. Indian economic system and common goals of Five Year Plans.
- Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy), industry (IPR 1956; SSI – role & importance) and foreign trade.
- Economic Reforms since 1991:
- Features and appraisals of liberalisation, globalisation and privatisation (LPG policy); Concepts of demonetization and GST
- Human Capital Formation: How people become resource; Role of human capital in economic development; Growth of Education Sector in India
- Rural Development: Key issues - credit and marketing - role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification; alternative farming - organic farming
- Employment: Growth and changes in work force participation rate in formal and informal sectors; problems and policies
- Sustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment, including global warming
- A comparison with neighbours
- India and Pakistan
- India and China
- Issues: economic growth, population, sectoral development and other Human Development Indicators
- Statistics for Economics, NCERT
- Indian Economic Development, NCERT
- Introductory Microeconomics, NCERT
- Macroeconomics, NCERT
- Supplementary Reading Material in Economics, CBSE
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- Further exploration of theoretic principles covered in courses XI and XII
- Using theoretical frameworks and argumentation, analyze and assess real-world economic scenarios
- Show that you understand economic theory.
- Follow up on economics topics that students are interested in
- Acquire the communication abilities to make logical arguments
- After thorough discussions and deliberations of the topic, assist each learner in choosing a topic based on recently published news media excerpts, government policies, RBI bulletin, NITI Aayog reports, IMF/World Bank reports, etc.
- Assume the roles of a facilitator and supervisor to track the project work of the learner through periodic discussions.
- Direct the research process with respect to sources for the pertinent information
- Prepare the student for the presentation of the project
Where can you download the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Economics?
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Economics PDF
How many units are there in the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Economics (Part 1)?
How many units are there in the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Economics (Part 2)?
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