NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 All Subjects 2022-2023 Check Details and Download PDFs

Safalta Expert Published by: Noor Fatima Updated Sat, 24 Sep 2022 10:59 AM IST


Here is the information about NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 for All Subjects 2022-2023. You can give a read to this blog and get all the information about the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12. 

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 2022-2023: The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) design the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12. It is basically divided into three streams; Science, Commerce, and Arts or Humanities. Physics, Chemistry, Accountancy, Business Studies, Economics, Home Science, Maths, Biology, Geography, History, Political Science, Biotechnology, Philosophy, Psychology, Human Rights and Gender Studies, and Legal Studies are some subjects for Class 12. Physics, Chemistry, Maths, and Biology are included in the Science stream, Accountancy, Business Studies, and Economics in Commerce and Geography, History, Psychology, and others in the humanities or arts stream. Candidates who are in Class 12 should refer to the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 2022-2023 to get all the important details regarding the curriculum and prepare for exams in a better way.

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The NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 outlines the marks distribution, course structure, project details, and all significant details as per the CBSE guidelines. Intermediate is the class where students' performance in their studies and percentage are given huge importance. Therefore, candidates in Class 12 should go through the curriculum and understand the syllabus carefully so that they can prepare well for their exams and make themselves shine all the way.  

The NCERT Books are packed with quality content, an abundance of knowledge, and simple learning that not only helps students evolve their thinking but also provides them opportunities to enhance their overall talents. With the help of the curriculum, you can plan your studies, make a timetable, and work on your weak sections. Moreover, you will also learn time management while following the curriculum. Scroll down to learn more about the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 2022-2023. 

Recommended: Study for your Exams with Safalta School online. We provide Preparation materials for Classes 9-12 that can boost your preparations.

The NCERT books have detailed explanations. Additionally, these are in a simple language that is easy to understand and learn. Students can refer to the syllabus of Class 12 before they prepare for their board exams. Below are the download links for each subject, along with an overview of the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12.

Table of Content
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Physics
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Chemistry
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Maths
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Biology
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 English
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Hindi
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Accountancy
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Business Studies
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Economics
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 History
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Geography
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Political Science
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Philosophy
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Psychology
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Sociology

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 2022-2023 

There are numerous subjects that Class 12 candidates can choose as their part of curriculum. Starting from  Physics, Chemistry, Maths, Biology, Geography, History, Political Science, Accountancy, Business Studies, Economics, Home Science, Biotechnology, Philosophy, Psychology to Human Rights and Gender Studies and Legal Studies, Candidates are free to pick the subject they want to study and pursue their career in the same. Here are the details for all the subjects for Class 12. Let's have a look. 

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NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Physics 

Physics is a theory cum practical subject. The Syllabus for Class 12 physics is divided into theory and practical sections. Students have to appear in the theory paper, which contains 70 marks. On the other hand, 30 marks are for the practical section. You can look at the table to understand the syllabus for Class 12 Physics. 
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Physics (Theory Section)
Unit No. Chapter Names Important Topics Marks Distribution
1 Electrostatics   15
  Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electric Charges

  • Conservation of charge

  • Coulomb's law-force between two point charges

  • Electric field

  • Electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines

  • Electric field due to a dipole, etc.

  Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Electric potential

  • Potential difference

  • Electric potential due to a point charge

  • Free charges and bound charges inside a conductor

  • Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field, etc.

2 Current Electricity    
  Current Electricity
  • Ohm's law

  • Electrical resistance

  • Electric current

  • Flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor

  • Drift velocity

  • Electrical resistivity and conductivity, colour code for carbon resistors

  • Series and parallel combinations of resistors

  • Temperature dependence of resistance,etc

3 Magnetic Effect of Current & Magnetism   16
  Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment

  • Biot - Savart law and its application Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields

  • Cyclotron, etc.

  Magnetism and Matter
  • Current loop as a magnetic dipole Magnetic field lines

  • Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements

  • Magnetic field intensity

  • Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field

  • Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, etc

4 Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current    
  Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic induction

  • Lenz's Law

  • Eddy currents

  • Self and mutual induction

  • Faraday's laws

  • Induced EMF and current, etc.

  Alternating Current
  • Alternating currents

  • Peak and RMS value

  • Power factor

  • Wattless current

  • LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only)

  • LCR series circuit, etc

5 Electromagnetic Waves   17
  Electromagnetic Waves
  • Basic idea of displacement current

  • Electromagnetic waves, etc

6 Optics    
  Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
  • Power of a lens

  • Refraction of light through a prism

  • Reflection of light

  • Spherical mirrors

  • Mirror formula

  • Refraction of light

  • Total internal reflection and its applications, etc

  Wave Optics
  • Young's double slit experiment

  • Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle

  • Coherent sources and sustained interference of light

  • Interference, etc.

7 Dual Nature of Matter   10
  Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Dual nature of radiation,

  • Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations

  • Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light, etc.

8 Atoms & Nuclei    
  • Alpha-particles scattering experiment

  • Bohr model

  • Energy levels

  • Hydrogen spectrum

  • Rutherford's model of atom.

  • Composition and size of nucleus

  • Radioactivity

  • Alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties

  • Radioactive decay law, etc.

9 Electronic Devices   12
  Semiconductor Electronics
  • Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias

  • diode as a rectifier

  • Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only), etc.

10 Communication Systems    
  Communication Systems    
    Total 70

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Physics (Practical Section)

S. No. Particulars Marks
1 Two experiments one from each section 08+08
2 Practical record (experiments and activities) 06
3 Investigatory Project 03
4 Viva on experiments, activities and project 05
  Total 30

Read more about NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Physics. Click here

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12  Chemistry 

Chemistry is a fundamental subject in the Science stream. It is also divided into 2 sections, theory and practical, same as physics. Students can refer to the table given below to see the marks distribution among units of the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Chemistry.

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Chemistry (Theory Section)
S.No.  Chapters Important Topics Marks Distribution
1 Solid State
  • General characteristics of solid states

  • Amorphous and crystalline solids

  • Classification of crystalline solids

  • Molecular solids, etc.

2 Solutions
  • Types of solutions

  • Expressing concentration of solutions

  • Solubility, solubility of a gas in liquid, etc.

3 Electrochemistry
  • Electrochemical cells

  • Galvanic cells

  • Measurement of electrode potential

  • Nernst equation, etc.

4 Chemical Kinetics
  • Rate of a chemical reaction

  • Dependence of rate on concentration

  • Rate expression and rate constant, etc.

5 Surface Chemistry
  • Adsorption

  • Distinction between adsorption and absorption

  • Types of adsorption etc

6 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Occurence of metals

  • Extraction of crude metal from concentrated ore,

  • Thermodynamic principles of metallurgy, etc.

7 The p-Block elements
  • Occurrence

  • Electronic configuration

  • Atomic and ionic radii

  • IIonisation Enthalpy

  • Electronegativity, etc.

8 The d- and f - Block Elements
  • Electronic Configurations of the d-Block Elements

  • Variation in Atomic and Ionic Sizes of Transition Metals, etc.

9 Coordination Compounds
  • Werner’s theory of coordination compounds

  • Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds, etc.

10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Nature of C-X Bond

  • Methods of preparation of haloalkanes, hydrocarbons, halogen exchange, etc.

  Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Alcohols— Mono, Di, Tri or Polyhydric alcohols,

  • Phenols— Mono, Di and trihydric phenols etc

11 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Nomenclature, structure of the carbonyl group

  • Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones etc.

12 Amines
  • Structure of amines

  • Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction

  • Gabriel phthalimide synthesis, etc

13 Biomolecules
  • Carbohydrates, Monosaccharides,

  • Preparation of Glucose, structure of glucose

  • Cyclic Structure of Glucose, etc.

14 Polymers
  • Classification of Polymers

  • Types of polymerization reactions

  • Mechanism of polymerisation reaction, etc.

15 Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Drugs and their classification

  • Drug-target interaction

  • Receptors as drug targets

  Total   70

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Chemistry (Practical Section)

S No. Practical  Marks distribution
1 Volumetric Analysis 08
2 Salt Analysis 08
3 Content-based Experiment 06
4 Project Work 04
5 Class record and viva 04
  Total 30

Read more about NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Chemistry. Click here

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Maths 

The syllabus of Class 12 maths is divided into two sections. The first is the theory, and the second is internal assessment. Students have to grab 70 marks from the theory section and 30 marks from the internal assessment. The type of questions that appear in the maths exams are very short, short, and long answer-type questions. You can have a look at the table to understand the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 maths in a better way.

NCERT Syllabus For Class 12 Maths
Unit Name Important Topics Marks distribution
Relations and Functions
  • Relations and Functions

  • Inverse Trigonometric Functions

  • Matrices

  • Determinants

  • Continuity and Differentiability

  • Applications of Derivatives

  • Integrals

  • Applications of the Integrals

  • Differential Equations

Vectors and three-dimensional Geometry
  • Vectors

  • Three-dimensional Geometry

Linear Programming
  • Optimization

  • Different types of linear programming

  • Mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, etc.

  • Multiplications theorem on probability

  • Conditional probability

  • Independent events

  • Total probability

  • Baye’s theorem

  Total 80
  Internal Assessment 20
  Total 100

Read more about NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Maths. Click here

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Biology 

Biology is an important subject for science stream students, particularly those in the medical field. Like chemistry and physics,  biology is also divided into two sections, theory and practical. Students have to grab 70 marks in the theory section, whereas 30 marks in the practical section. Candidates can refer to the table given below to see the marks distribution among the units of the NCERT syllabus for Class 12 biology.

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 - Biology (Theory Section)
S.No.  Chapters Important Topics Marks Distribution
1 Reproduction in organisms
  • Modes of reproduction

  • Reproduction; asexual reproduction - binary fission, etc.

2 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Flower structure

  • Pollination - types

  • Gencies and examples

  • Embryo, pollen-pistil interaction

  • Double fertilization, etc

3 Human Reproduction
  • Embryo development up to blastocyst formation

  • Menstrual cycle

  • Fertilisation, Male and Female reproductive systems

  • Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary

  • Gametogenesis - spermatogenesis and oogenesis, etc.

4 Reproductive Health
  • Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

  • Birth control - contraception and medical termination of pregnancy

  • Need and methods, etc.

5 Principles of Inheritance And Variation
  • Chromosome theory of inheritance

  • Linkage and crossing over

  • Sex-linked inheritance

  • Mendelian disorders in humans

  • Multiple alleles and inheritance, pleiotropy, etc.

6 Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Central dogma

  • Transcription

  • Structure of DNA and RNA

  • DNA packaging; DNA replication, etc.

7 Evolution
  • Darwin's contribution

  • Origin of life

  • Biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution, etc.

8 Human Health and Disease
  • Pathogens

  • Parasites causing human diseases and their control

  • Chickengunia, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, etc.

9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Improvement in food production: Plant breeding

  • Biofortification

  • Apiculture

  • Tissue culture

  • Single cell protein, etc.

10 Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers,

  • In household food processing,

  • Industrial production

  • Sewage treatment, etc.

  Biotechnology: Principles and Processes
  • Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

11 Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Stem cell technology

  • Gene therapy

  • genetically modified organisms

  • Application of biotechnology,etc.

12 Organisms And Population
  • Population and ecological adaptations

  • Population interactions

  • Habitat and niche, competition, predation, parasitism, etc.

13 Ecosystem
  • Ecosystems

  • Energy flow

  • Nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession, etc.

14 Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biodiversity conservation

  • Extinction

  • Biodiversity-Concept

  • Patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity, etc.

15 Environmental Issues
  • Agrochemicals and their effectS

  • Solid waste management

  • Greenhouse effect and climate change impact and mitigation

  • Ozone layer depletion, etc.

  Total   70
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 - Biology (Practical section)
S No. Practical  Marks distribution
1 One Major Experiment 05
2 One Minor Experiment 04
3 Slide Preparation 05
4 Spotting 07
5 Practical Record/Project record + Viva Voce  
  Total 30

Read more about NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Biology. Click here

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 English 

English is a theoretical subject with three sections, including reading, literature, and writing. There are two prescribed books for Class 12 English. These are Flamingo and Vistas, which is also known as Supplementary Reader. The question paper for the English subject is 100 marks. You can find the syllabus of Class 12 English in the table given below.
Flamingo – Prose
Lesson 1: The Last Lesson (Alphonse Daudet)
Lesson2: Lost Spring (Anees Jung)
Lesson3: Deep Water (William Douglas)
Lesson 4: The Rattrap (Selma Lagerlof)
Lesson 5: Indigo (Louis Fischer)
Lesson 6: Poets and Pancakes
Lesson 7: The Interview
Lesson 8: Going Places (A. R. Barton)

Flamingo – Poetry
Poem 1: My Mother at Sixty – Six (Kamala Das)
Poem 2: An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum (Stephen Spender)
Poem 3: Keeping Quiet (Pablo Neruda)
Poem 4: A Thing of Beauty (John Keats)
Poem 5: A Roadside Stand
Poem 6: Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers (Adrienne Rich)

Vistas – Supplementary Reader
Chapter 1: The Third Level (Jack Finney)
Chapter 2. The Tiger King (Kalki)
Chapter 3. Journey to the end of the Earth (Tishani Doshi)
Chapter 4. The Enemy Pearl (S. Buck)
Chapter 5. Should Wizard hit Mommy (John Updike)
Chapter 6. On the face of It (Susan Hill)
Chapter 7. Evans Tries an O-level (Colin Dexter)
Chapter 8. Memories of Childhood (Zitkala-Sa & Bama)

Read more about NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 English. Click here

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Hindi 

Hindi is a scoring and important subject in Class 12. It has a wise syllabus. Therefore, we recommend students understand the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Hindi 2022-2023 as soon as possible and begin with the exam preparations.

The curriculum is divided into 4 books, including Antra, Aroh, Antral, and Vitaan. You can find the syllabus below. 
Book Name Chapter Names
Antra Bhaag 2 Chapter 1: जयशंकर प्रसाद
  Chapter 2: सूर्यकांत त्रिपाठी निराला
  Chapter 3: सच्चिदानंद हीरानंद वात्सयायन अज्ञेय
  Chapter 4:केदारनाथ सिंह
  Chapter 5: विष्णु खरे
  Chapter 6: रघुबीर सहाय
  Chapter 7: तुलसीदास
  Chapter 8: मलिक मुहम्मद जायसी
  Chapter 9: विद्यापति
  Chapter 10: केशवदास
  Chapter 11: घनानंद
  Chapter 12: रामचंद्र शुक्ल
  Chapter 13: पंडित चंद्रधर शर्मा गुलेरी
  Chapter 14: ब्रजमोहन व्यास
  Chapter 15: फणीश्वरनाथ रेणु
  Chapter 16: भीष्म साहनी
  Chapter 17: असगर वजाहत
  Chapter 18: निर्मल वर्मा
  Chapter 19: रामविलास शर्मा
  Chapter 20: ममता कालिया
  Chapter 21: हज़ारी प्रसाद द्विवेदी
Aroh Bhaag 2 Chapter 1: हरिवंश राय बच्चन
  Chapter 2: आलोक धन्वा
  Chapter 3: कुंवर नारायण
  Chapter 4: रघुवीर सहाय
  Chapter 5: गजानन माधव मुक्तिबोध
  Chapter 6: शमशेर बहादुर सिंह
  Chapter 7: सूर्यकांत त्रिपाठी निराला
  Chapter 8: तुलसीदास
  Chapter 9: फ़िराक गोरखपुरी
  Chapter 10: उमाशंकर जोशी
  Chapter 11: महादेवी वर्मा
  Chapter 12: जैनेन्द्र कुमार
  Chapter 13: धर्मवीर भारती
  Chapter 14: फणीश्वरनाथ रेणु
  Chapter 15: विष्णु खरे
  Chapter 16: रज़िया सज्जाद जहीर
  Chapter 17; हजारी प्रसाद द्विवेदी
  Chapter 18: बाबा साहेब भीमराव अंबेडकर 
Vitaan Bhag 2 Chapter 1: सिल्वर वैडिंग
  Chapter 2: जूझ
  Chapter 3: अतीत में दबे पाँव
  Chapter 4: डायरी के पन्ने 
Antral Bhaag 2 Chapter 1; सूरदास की झोपडी
  Chapter 2: आरोहण
  Chapter 3: बिस्कोहर की माटी
  Chapter 4: अपना मालवा- खाऊ- उजाड़ू

Read more about NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Hindi. Click here

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Accountancy 

Accountancy is an important subject in Class 12. Students should understand the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Accountancy 2022-2023 to begin preparation as soon as possible. The curriculum is divided into two parts, Part A: Accounting for partnership firms and companies and Part B: Financial Statement Accounting. B

Below is the Class 12 Accountancy syllabus given. 
Part Chapter Name
Part A: Accounting for partnership firms Chapter 1: Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisation
  Chapter 2: Accounting for Partnership: Basic Concepts
  Chapter 3: Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm – Admission of a Partner
  Chapter 4: Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm – 172 Retirement/Death of a Partner
  Chapter 5: Dissolution of Partnership Firm
Part B: Financial Statement Analysis  Chapter 1: Accounting for Share Capital
  Chapter 2: Issue and Redemption of Debentures
  Chapter 3: Financial Statements of a Company
  Chapter 4: Analysis of Financial Statement
  Chapter 5: Accounting Ratios
  Chapter 6: Cash Flow Statement

Read more about NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Accountancy. Click here

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Business Studies 

Business Studies is another important subject in Class 12. It is a theoretical and scoring subject. Go through the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Business Studies 2022-2023 to understand the syllabus and plan your studies to score good grades.

The curriculum is divided into two Parts; Part A: Principles and Functions of Management and Part B: Business Finance and Marketing. 
Part Chapter Name
Part A: Principles and Functions of Management Chapter 1: Nature and Significance of Management
  Chapter 2: Principles of Management
  Chapter 3: Business Environment
  Chapter 4: Planning
  Chapter 5: Organising
  Chapter 6: Staffing
  Chapter 7: Directing
  Chapter 8: Controlling
Part B: Business Finance and Marketing Chapter 9: Financial Management
  Chapter 10: Financial Markets
  Chapter 11: Marketing
  Chapter 12: Consumer protection

Read more about NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Business Studies. Click here

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Economics 

Economics is a crucial subject for Class 12. It includes both theoretical content and numerical in the National Income chapter. The NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Economics 2022-2023 is given below in the table.

It is divided into two parts; Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics and Part B: Indian Economic Development. You can have a look. 
Part Chapter Name
Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics Chapter 1: Introduction
  Chapter 2: National Income Accounting
  Chapter 3: Money and Banking
  Chapter 4: Determination of Income and Employment
  Chapter 5: Government Budget and Economy
  Chapter 6: Open Economy Macroeconomics
Part B: Indian Economic Development Chapter 1: Indian Economy On The Eve Of Independence
  Chapter 2: Indian Economy 1950-1990
  Chapter 3: Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation
  Chapter 4: Poverty 
  Chapter 5:  Human Capital Formation In India
  Chapter 6: Rural Development
  Chapter 7: Employment: Growth Informalisation & Other Issues
  Chapter 8: Infrastructure 
  Chapter 9: Environment & Sustainable Development
  Chapter 10; Comparative Development Experiences of India & Its Neighbours

Read more about NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Economics. Click here


NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 History 

History is a theoretical and important subject in Class 12. It teaches us about past events, inspires our present, and motivates us to carve a better future. The NCERT syllabus for Class 12 History 2022-2023 is divided into three parts. You can have a look at the curriculum from the table given below. 

Part  Unit Topics covered
The Harappan Civilization:
Broad overview: Early urb an centers

Story of discovery: Harappan civilization

Excerpt: Archaeological report on a major site

Discussion: How it has been utilized by archaeologists/ historians
Early States and Economies (c. 600 BCE-600 CE)
Broad overview: Political and economic History from the Mauryan to the Gupta period

Story of discovery: Inscriptions and the Decipherment of the script. Shifts in the Understanding of political and economic history.

Excerpt: Ashokan inscription and Gupta period land grant

Discussion: Interpretation of inscriptions by historians.
Early Society Societies (C. 600 BCE-600 CE)
Social Histories: Using the Mahabharata Issues in social history, inclu ding caste, class, kinship and gender

Story of discovery: Transmission and publications of the Mahabharata

Excerpt: from the Mahabharata, illustrating how it has been used by historians.

Discussion: Other sources for reconstructing social history.
Cultural Developments (c. 600 BCE – 600 CE)
Broad overview: A History of Buddhism: Sanchi Stupa. A brief review of religious histories of Vedic religion, Jainism, Vaishnavism, Shaivism (Puranic Hinduism)

Focus on Buddhism.

Story of discovery: Sanchi stupa.

Excerpt: Reproduction of sculptures from Sanchi.

Discussion: Ways in which sculpture has been interpreted by historians, other sources for reconstructing the history of Buddhism.
Perceptions of Society (c. tenth to seventeenth century)
Broad Overview: Outlines of social and cultural life as they appear in traveller’s account.

Story of their writings: A discussion of where they travelled, what they wrote and for whom they wrote.

Excerpts: from Al Biruni, Ibn Battuta, Francois Bernier.

Discussion: What these travel accounts can tell us and how they have been interpreted by historians.
Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional Texts (c. eighth to eighteenth centuries)
Broad overview: Outline of religious developments during this period saints.

Ideas and practices of the Bhakti-Sufi

Story of 

Transmission: How Bhakti-Sufi compositions have been preserved.

Excerpt: Extracts from selected Bhakti-Sufi works.

Discussion: Ways in which these have been interpreted by historians.
  AN IMPERIAL CAPITAL: VIJAYANAGARA (c. fourteenth to sixteenth centuries) Broad Over View: New Architecture: Hampi

Outline of new buildings during Vijayanagar period-temples, forts, irrigation facilities.

Relationship between architecture and the political system

Story of Discovery: Account of how Hampi was found.

Excerpt: Visuals of buildings at Hampi

Discussion: Ways in which historians have analyzed and interpreted these structures.
  PEASANTS, ZAMINDARS AND THE STATE: Agrarian Society and the Mughal Empire (c. sixteenth-seventeenth centuries)
Broad overview: The Aini-Akbari

Structure of agrarian relations in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Patterns of change over the period.

Story of Discovery: Account of the compilation and translation of Ain I Akbari

Excerpt: from the Ain-iAkbari.

Discussion: Ways in which historians have used texts to reconstruct history.
PART-III COLONIALISM AND THE COUNTRYSIDE: Exploring Official Archives Broad overview: Colonialism and Rural Society: Evidence from Official Reports

Life of zamindars, peasants and artisans in the late18thcentury

Permanent Settlement, Santhals and Paharias

Story of official records: An account of why official Investigations into rural societies were undertaken and the types of records and reports produced.

Excerpts: From Fifth Report

Discussion: What the official records tell and do not tell, and how they have been used by historians.
  REBELS AND THE RAJ: 1857 Revolt and its Representations Broad overview: The events of 1857-58.

Vision of Unity

How these events were recorded and narrated.

Focus: Lucknow

Excerpts: Pictures of 1857. Extracts from contemporary accounts.

Discussion: How the pictures of 1857 shaped British opinion of what had happened.
  MAHATMA GANDHI AND THE NATIONALIST MOVEMENT: Civil Disobedience and Beyond Broad overview: The Nationalist Movement 1918 -48.

The nature of Gandhian politics and leadership.

Focus: Mahatma Gandhi and the three movements and his last days as “finest hours”

Excerpts: Reports from English and Indian language newspapers and other contemporary writings.

Discussion: How newspapers can be a source of history
  FRAMING THE CONSTITUTION: The Beginning of a New Era Broad overview: The Making of the Constitution an overview: Independence and then new nation state.

The making of the Constitution

Focus: The Constituent Assembly Debates

Excerpts: from the debates

Discussion: What such debates reveal and how they can be analyzed. 

Read more about NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 History. Click here

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Geography 

Geography deals with the study of Earth's surface and the interaction between humans and their environment. The NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Geography is divided into two parts, namely, Fundamentals of Human Geography and India: People and Economy. The course content is given below in the table. Candidates can have an overlook. 

Part A: Fundamentals of Human Geography

Unit Unit Name Topics covered
Unit 1 Human Geography Nature and Scope 
Unit 2 People The World Population- distribution, density and growth

Population change – Components of population change, Demographic Transition

Human development – concept; selected indicators, international comparisons
Unit 3 Human Activities  Primary activities – concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities – some examples from selected countries

Secondary activities- concept; manufacturing: types – household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries

Tertiary activities – concept; trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities

Quaternary activities- concept; people engaged in quaternary activities – case study from selected countries
Unit 4 Transport, Communication and Trade  Land transport – roads, railways; transcontinental railways 

Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes

Air transport- Intercontinental air routes Oil and gas pipelines

Satellite communication and cyber space importance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS

International trade- bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade; role of WTO in international trade
Part B: India: People and Economy
Unit Unit Name Topics covered
Unit 6 People 
Population: distribution, density and growth
Composition of population – linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in growth of population
Unit 7 Human Settlements  Rural settlements – types and distribution

Urban settlements – types, distribution and functional classification
Unit 8 Resources and Development  Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use; geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber); agricultural development and problems

Water resources-availability and utilization irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management

Mineral and energy resources- distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation

Planning in India- target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study)
Unit 9 Transport, Communication and International Trade  Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication net works

International trade- changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports
Unit 10 Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal

Urbanization, rural-urban migration; problems of slums

Land degradation

Read more about NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Geography. Click here

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Political Science 

Class 12 Political Science Syllabus is categorized into two parts. The names of these sections are Contemporary World Politics and Politics in India since independence. The course content in these parts is explained with the help of a table given below. 

Part A: Contemporary World Politics

Unit Unit/ Chapter Name Topics covered
Unit 1 The End of Bipolarity Disintegration of Soviet Union, Unipolar World, Middle East Crisis - Afghanistan, Gulf War, Democratic Politics and Democratization - CIS and the 21st Century (Arab Spring).
Unit 2 New Centres of Power  Organizations: European Union, ASEAN, SAARC, BRICS.

Nations: Russia, China, Israel, India, Japan and South Korea.
Unit 3 Contemporary South Asia Conflicts and efforts for Peace and Democratization in South Asia: Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives.
Unit 4 United Nations and its Organizations Principle Organs, Key Agencies: UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO, ILO, Security Council and the Need for its Expansion.
Unit 5 Security in Contemporary World Security: Meaning and Types; Terrorism.
Unit 6 Environment and Natural Resources Environmental Movements, Global Warming and Climate Change, Conservation of Natural Resources.
Unit 7 Globalization Globalization: Meaning, Manifestations and Debates.

Part B: Politics in India Since Independence

Unit Unit/ Chapter Name Topics covered
Unit 1 Challenges of Nation-Building Nation and Nation Building. Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel and Integration of States. Nehru’s approach to nation-building; Legacy of partition: challenge of 'refugee' Resettlement, the Kashmir problem. Political conflicts over language. Linguistic Organisation of States.
Unit 2 Planned Development Changing nature of India’s Economic Development Planning Commission and Five Year Plans, National Development Council, NITI Aayog.
Unit 3 India's Foreign Policy Principles of Foreign Policy; India’s Changing Relations with Other Nations: US, Russia, China, Israel; India’s Relations with its Neighbours: Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Myanmar; India’s Nuclear Programme.
Unit 4 Parties and the Party Systems in India One Party Dominance, Bi-Party System, Multi-Party Coalition System.
Unit 5 Democratic Resurgence Jaya Prakash Narayan and Total Revolution, Ram Manohar Lohia and Socialism, Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya and Integral Humanism, National Emergency, Democratic Upsurges - Participation of the Adults, Backwards and Youth.
Unit 6 Regional Aspirations Rise of regional parties. Punjab Crisis. The Kashmir Issue, Movements for Autonomy.
Unit 7 Indian Politics: Recent Trends and Developments Era of Coalitions, National Front, United Front, United Progressive Alliance (UPA) - I & II, National Democratic Alliance (NDA) I, II, III & IV, Issues of Development and Governance.

Read more about NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Political Science. Click here

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Philosophy

There are two units in Class 12 Philosophy syllabus, including Ethics (Moral Philosophy) and Theory of Reality (MetaPhysics). These are further divided into certain topics. The details are as follows-

Unit No.  Unit Name Topics covered
1 Ethics (Moral Philosophy)
  • Western Ethical Theories
  • Indian Ethics
  • Ethical Concerns
2 Theory of Reality (MetaPhysics)
  • Proofs for the existence of God
  • Descartes on Mind-body dualism
  • Nyaya Proofs for the existence of God
  • The Bhagawada gita on the immortality on the soul and rebirth
  • Jaina view on Anekantavada Syadvada

Read more about NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Philosophy. Click here

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Psychology

There are seven units in Class 12 Philosophy syllabus, including Variations in Psychological Attributes, Self and Personality, Meeting Life Challenges, Psychological Disorders, Therapeutic Approaches, Attitude and Social Cognition, Social Influence and Group Processes. These are further divided into certain topics. The details are as follows-

Unit No.  Unit Name Topics covered
1 Variations in Psychological Attributes
  • Introduction
  • Individual Differences in Human Functioning
  • Assessment of Psychological Attributes
  • Intelligence
  • Theories of Intelligence
  • Individual Differences in Intelligence
  • Culture and Intelligence
  • Emotional Intelligence
  • Special Abilities
  • Creativity
2 Self and Personality
  • Introduction
  • Self and Personality
  • Concept of Self
  • Cognitive and Behavioural Aspects of Self5. Culture and Self
  • Concept of Personality
  • Major Approaches to the Study of Personality
  • Assessment of Personality
3 Meeting Life Challenges
  • Introduction
  • Nature, Types and Sources of Stress
  • Effects of Stress on Psychological Functioning and Health
  • Coping with Stress
  • Promoting Positive Health and Well-being
  • Psychological Disorders
  • Introduction
  • Concepts of abnormality and psychological Disorders
  • Classification of Psychological Disorders
  • Factors Underlying Abnormal Behaviour
  • Major Psychological Disorders
5 Therapeutic Approaches
  • Nature and process of psychotherapy
  • Types of Therapies
6 Attitude and Social Cognition
  • Introduction
  • Explaining Social Behaviour
  • Nature and Components of Attitudes
  • Attitude Formation and Change
7 Social Influence and Group Processes
  • Introduction
  • Nature and Formation of Groups
  • Type of Groups
  • Influence of Group on Individual Behaviour

Read more about NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Psychology. Click here

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Sociology

There are 2 parts in Class 12 Sociology syllabus, including Indian Society and Change and Development in India. These are further divided into 15 units. The details are as follows-

Parts Unit Names
Part A: Indian Society Unit 1: Introducing Indian Society
  Unit 2: The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society
  Unit 3: Social Institutions: Continuity and Change
  Unit 5: Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion
  Unit 6: The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
  Unit 7: Suggestions for Project Work
Part B: Change and Developement in India Unit 8: Structural Change
  Unit 9: Cultural Change
  Unit 11: Change and Development in Rural Society
  Unit 12: Change and Development in Industrial Society
  Unit 15: Social Movements 

Read more about NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Sociology. Click here
How can students download the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12?
Students can download the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 for all subjects by following the steps given below-
  • Go to the official website,
  • Go to the segment of ‘Links’, and select the choice of ‘Syllabus of Classes I-XII.’
  • A new page will appear, click on ‘Click Here for download of Syllabus at Secondary and Higher Secondary Level.
  • Download the NCERT Class 12 syllabus for the subjects you want or all of them. You may get a PDF file.

What are the passing marks in the CBSE exams?

The minimum percentage of marks a student should score to clear the exams is 33%.

Are NCERT books enough to prepare for board exams?

Yes, NCERT books can prepare you very well for your board exams. These books are rich in quality content. Moreover, the concepts are explained comprehensively but in simple language.

Are NCERT and CBSE different?

NCERT is the publisher of books, whereas CBSE is the board of education. CBSE suggests books published by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT).

What is the ideal time to finish the complete syllabus and start revising it?

It is advised to complete your entire syllabus before 2 months of the exams and start your revision.

What are the benefits of Safata School Online?

The following are offered by Safalta school online-
  • Free e-books and Mock test papers
  • Preparation materials
  • One-to-one interaction with teachers
  • Easy to approach teachers when having a query

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