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NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 2022 All Subjects

Safalta Expert Published by: Noor Fatima Updated Sat, 06 Aug 2022 12:23 PM IST


Here is the information about NCERT Syllabus for Class 12. You can give a read to this blog and get all the information about the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12. 

The National Council of Educational Research and Training gives the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12. The syllabus is designed to make students ready for a better tomorrow and strengthen their fundamental concepts of the chapters. It will not only help them score good marks in the board exams but also assist in cracking entrance exams and competitive examinations. The books under the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 are of the subjects, including English, chemistry,  biology, accountancy,  business studies,  economics,  and Hindi.

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The NCERT books have detailed explanations. Additionally, these are in a simple language that is easy to understand and learn. Students can refer to the syllabus of Class 12 before they prepare for their board exams. 

Below are the download links for each subject, along with an overview of the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12.

Table of Content
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 English
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Physics
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Maths
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12  Chemistry
NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Biology

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 PDF Download

Subjects Links
NCERT 12th syllabus for English Click here
NCERT 12th syllabus for Maths (Revised) Click here
NCERT 12th syllabus for Physics (Revised) Click here
NCERT 12th syllabus for Chemistry (Revised) Click here
NCERT 12th syllabus for Biology (Revised) Click here
NCERT 12th syllabus for History Click here
NCERT 12th syllabus for Psychology Click here
NCERT 12th syllabus for Arts Education Click here
NCERT 12th syllabus for Accountancy Click here
NCERT 12th syllabus for Political Science Click here
NCERT 12th syllabus for Geography Click here
NCERT 12th syllabus for Sociology Click here
NCERT 12th syllabus for Economics Click here
NCERT 12th syllabus for Business Studies Click here

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 English

English is a theoretical subject with three sections, including reading, literature, and writing. There are two prescribed books for Class 12 English.

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These are Flamingo and Vistas, which is also known as Supplementary Reader.

The question paper for the English subject is 100 marks. You can find the syllabus of Class 12 English in the table given below.
 Flamingo – Prose
Lesson 1: The Last Lesson (Alphonse Daudet)
Lesson2: Lost Spring (Anees Jung)
Lesson3: Deep Water (William Douglas)
Lesson 4: The Rattrap (Selma Lagerlof)
Lesson 5: Indigo (Louis Fischer)
Lesson 6: Poets and Pancakes
Lesson 7: The Interview
Lesson 8: Going Places (A. R. Barton)

Flamingo – Poetry
Poem 1: My Mother at Sixty – Six (Kamala Das)
Poem 2: An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum (Stephen Spender)
Poem 3: Keeping Quiet (Pablo Neruda)
Poem 4: A Thing of Beauty (John Keats)
Poem 5: A Roadside Stand
Poem 6: Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers (Adrienne Rich)

Vistas – Supplementary Reader
Chapter 1: The Third Level (Jack Finney)
Chapter 2. The Tiger King (Kalki)
Chapter 3. Journey to the end of the Earth (Tishani Doshi)
Chapter 4. The Enemy Pearl (S.Buck)
Chapter 5. Should Wizard hit Mommy (John Updike)
Chapter 6. On the face of It (Susan Hill)
Chapter 7. Evans Tries an O-level (Colin Dexter)
Chapter 8. Memories of Childhood (Zitkala-Sa & Bama)

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Physics

Physics is a theory cum practical subject. The Syllabus for Class 12 physics is divided into theory and practical sections. Students have to appear in the theory paper, which contains 70 marks. On the other hand, 30 marks are for the practical section.

You can look at the table to understand the syllabus for Class 12 Physics. 
 NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Physics (Theory Section)

Unit No.

Unit/Chapter Name

Important Topics






Electric Charges and Fields

  • Electric Charges

  • Conservation of charge

  • Coulomb's law-force between two point charges

  • Electric field

  • Electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines

  • Electric field due to a dipole, etc.


Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

  • Electric potential

  • Potential difference

  • Electric potential due to a point charge

  • Free charges and bound charges inside a conductor

  • Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field, etc.


Current Electricity


Current Electricity

  • Ohm's law

  • Electrical resistance

  • Electric current

  • Flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor

  • Drift velocity

  • Electrical resistivity and conductivity, colour code for carbon resistors

  • Series and parallel combinations of resistors

  • Temperature dependence of resistance,etc


Magnetic Effect of Current & Magnetism



Moving Charges and Magnetism

  • Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment

  • Biot - Savart law and its application Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields

  • Cyclotron, etc.


Magnetism and Matter

  • Current loop as a magnetic dipole Magnetic field lines

  • Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements

  • Magnetic field intensity

  • Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field

  • Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, etc


Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current


Electromagnetic Induction

  • Electromagnetic induction

  • Lenz's Law

  • Eddy currents

  • Self and mutual induction

  • Faraday's laws

  • Induced EMF and current, etc.


Alternating Current

  • Alternating currents

  • Peak and RMS value

  • Power factor

  • Wattless current

  • LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only)

  • LCR series circuit, etc


Electromagnetic Waves



Electromagnetic Waves

  • Basic idea of displacement current

  • Electromagnetic waves, etc




Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

  • Power of a lens

  • Refraction of light through a prism

  • Reflection of light

  • Spherical mirrors

  • Mirror formula

  • Refraction of light

  • Total internal reflection and its applications, etc


Wave Optics

  • Young's double slit experiment

  • Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle

  • Coherent sources and sustained interference of light

  • Interference, etc.


Dual Nature of Matter



Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

  • Dual nature of radiation,

  • Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations

  • Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light, etc.


Atoms & Nuclei


Chapter-12: Atoms

  • Alpha-particles scattering experiment

  • Bohr model

  • Energy levels

  • Hydrogen spectrum

  • Rutherford's model of atom.


Chapter-13: Nuclei

  • Composition and size of nucleus

  • Radioactivity

  • Alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties

  • Radioactive decay law, etc.


Electronic Devices



Semiconductor Electronics

  • Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias

  • Diode as a rectifier

  • Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only), etc.


Communication Systems


Communication Systems




NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Physics (Practical Section)



Two experiments one from each section


Practical record (experiments and activities)


Investigatory Project


Viva on experiments, activities and project




Also Read:

NCERT Book for Class 12
NCERT Book for Class 12 Maths
NCERT Book for Class 12 Physics
NCERT Book for Class 12 Chemistry
NCERT Book for Class 12 Biology
NCERT Book for Class 12 English
NCERT Book for Class 12 Hindi
NCERT Books for Class 12 Accountancy
NCERT Books for Class 12 Economics
NCERT Books for Class 12 Business Studies

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Maths

The syllabus of Class 12 maths is divided into two sections. The first is the theory, and the second is internal assessment. Students have to grab 70 marks from the theory section and 30 marks from the internal assessment. 
The type of questions that appear in the maths exams are very short, short, and long answer-type questions. You can have a look at the table to understand the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 maths in a better way.

NCERT Syllabus For Class 12 Maths


Important Topics


Relations and Functions

  • Relations and Functions

  • Inverse Trigonometric Functions



  • Matrices

  • Determinants



  • Continuity and Differentiability

  • Applications of Derivatives

  • Integrals

  • Applications of the Integrals

  • Differential Equations



Vectors and three-dimensional Geometry

  • Vectors

  • Three-dimensional Geometry


Linear Programming

  • Optimization

  • Different types of linear programming

  • Mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, etc.



  • Multiplications theorem on probability

  • Conditional probability

  • Independent events

  • Total probability

  • Baye’s theorem






Internal Assessment






NCERT Syllabus for Class 12  Chemistry

Chemistry is a fundamental subject in the Science stream. It is also divided into 2 sections, theory and practical, same as physics. Students can refer to the table given below to see the marks distribution among units of the NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Chemistry.

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Chemistry (Theory Section)


Important Topics


Solid State

  • General characteristics of solid states

  • Amorphous and crystalline solids

  • Classification of crystalline solids

  • Molecular solids, etc.



  • Types of solutions

  • Expressing concentration of solutions

  • Solubility, solubility of a gas in liquid, etc.


  • Electrochemical cells

  • Galvanic cells

  • Measurement of electrode potential

  • Nernst equation, etc.

Chemical Kinetics

  • Rate of a chemical reaction

  • Dependence of rate on concentration

  • Rate expression and rate constant, etc.

Surface Chemistry

  • Adsorption

  • Distinction between adsorption and absorption

  • Types of adsorption etc

General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

  • Occurence of metals

  • Extraction of crude metal from concentrated ore,

  • Thermodynamic principles of metallurgy, etc.


The p-Block elements

  • Occurrence

  • Electronic configuration

  • Atomic and ionic radii

  • IIonisation Enthalpy

  • Electronegativity, etc.

The d- and f - Block Elements

  • Electronic Configurations of the d-Block Elements

  • Variation in Atomic and Ionic Sizes of Transition Metals, etc.

Coordination Compounds

  • Werner’s theory of coordination compounds

  • Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds, etc.

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

  • Nature of C-X Bond

  • Methods of preparation of haloalkanes, hydrocarbons, halogen exchange, etc.


Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

  • Alcohols— Mono, Di, Tri or Polyhydric alcohols,

  • Phenols— Mono, Di and trihydric phenols etc

Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

  • Nomenclature, structure of the carbonyl group

  • Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones etc.


  • Structure of amines

  • Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction

  • Gabriel phthalimide synthesis, etc


  • Carbohydrates, Monosaccharides,

  • Preparation of Glucose, structure of glucose

  • Cyclic Structure of Glucose, etc.


  • Classification of Polymers

  • Types of polymerization reactions

  • Mechanism of polymerisation reaction, etc.

Chemistry in Everyday Life

  • Drugs and their classification

  • Drug-target interaction

  • Receptors as drug targets




NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Chemistry (Practical Section)



Volumetric Analysis


Salt Analysis


Content-based Experiment


Project Work


Class record and viva





NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Biology

Biology is an important subject for science stream students, particularly those in the medical field. Like chemistry and physics,  biology is also divided into two sections, theory and practical.
Students have to grab 70 marks in the theory section, whereas 30 marks in the practical section. Candidates can refer to the table given below to see the marks distribution among the units of the NCERT syllabus for Class 12 biology.

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 - Biology (Theory Section)


Important Topics


Reproduction in organisms

  • Modes of reproduction

  • Reproduction; asexual reproduction - binary fission, etc.


Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

  • Flower structure

  • Pollination - types

  • Embryo, pollen-pistil interaction

  • Double fertilization, etc

Human Reproduction

  • Embryo development up to blastocyst formation

  • Menstrual cycle

  • Fertilisation, Male and Female reproductive systems

  • Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary

  • Gametogenesis - spermatogenesis and oogenesis, etc.

Reproductive Health

  • Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

  • Birth control - contraception and medical termination of pregnancy

  • Need and methods, etc.

Principles of Inheritance And Variation

  • Chromosome theory of inheritance

  • Linkage and crossing over

  • Sex-linked inheritance

  • Mendelian disorders in humans

  • Multiple alleles and inheritance, pleiotropy, etc.


Molecular Basis of Inheritance

  • Central dogma

  • Transcription

  • Structure of DNA and RNA

  • DNA packaging; DNA replication, etc.


  • Darwin's contribution

  • Origin of life

  • Biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution, etc.

Human Health and Disease

  • Pathogens

  • Parasites causing human diseases and their control

  • Chickengunia, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, etc.


Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

  • Improvement in food production: Plant breeding

  • Biofortification

  • Apiculture

  • Tissue culture

  • Single cell protein, etc.

Microbes in Human Welfare

  • Energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers,

  • In household food processing,

  • Industrial production

  • Sewage treatment, etc.

Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

  • Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).


Biotechnology and its Applications

  • Stem cell technology

  • Gene therapy

  • genetically modified organisms

  • Application of biotechnology,etc.

Organisms And Population

  • Population and ecological adaptations

  • Population interactions

  • Habitat and niche, competition, predation, parasitism, etc.



  • Ecosystems

  • Energy flow

  • Nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession, etc.

Biodiversity and Conservation

  • Biodiversity conservation

  • Extinction

  • Biodiversity-Concept

  • Patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity, etc.

Environmental Issues

  • Agrochemicals and their effectS

  • Solid waste management

  • Greenhouse effect and climate change impact and mitigation

  • Ozone layer depletion, etc.



NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 - Biology (Practical section)



One Major Experiment


One Minor Experiment


Slide Preparation




Practical Record/Project record + Viva Voce




What are the passing marks in the CBSE exams?

The minimum percentage of marks a student should score to clear the exams is 33%.

Are NCERT books enough to prepare for board exams?

Yes, NCERT books can prepare you very well for your board exams. These books are rich in quality content. Moreover, the concepts are explained comprehensively but in simple language.

Are NCERT and CBSE different?

NCERT is the publisher of books, whereas CBSE is the board of education. CBSE suggests books published by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT).

What is the ideal time to finish the complete syllabus and start revising it?

It is advised to complete your entire syllabus before 2 months of the exams and start your revision.

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The following are offered by Safalta school online-
  • Free e-books and Mock test papers
  • Preparation materials
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